Archive for February, 2008

Posted by Gabriel (G²) on February 22, 2008


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Salvation THROUGH Christ…..

Posted by Gabriel (G²) on February 22, 2008

          In this video, John MacArthur and Kirk Cameron discuss how salvation is impossible in every sense outside of the sovereign grace and love of Jesus Christ.

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Posted by Gabriel (G²) on February 19, 2008


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Posted by Gabriel (G²) on February 17, 2008

 Before going any further with this post, I wanted to clarify something.

And I am bringing this up due to how when it comes to the issue of false teachers/correcting error, it seems that many come at the issue as if it’s a SPORT, where they do so for fun and forget the way in which we’re to go about handling things….and moreover, we forget that it’s not enough to simply quote a verse and then go about one’s way if other verses have not been considered (or attitudes of the heart as well and seeing whether or not our MOTIVES for doing so are in line with the Word of God and we’re consistent with the Rest of Scripture (i.e. quoting scriptures dealing with REBUKE and walking around ready to rebuke everyone/anyone but ignoring those verses on HUMILITY, GENTLENESS, KINDNESS, PATIENCE, etc)

      To begin, here is a resource site I’ve been investing in for awhile that I think you’d really enjoy. Probably the BEST COMMENTARY WEBSITE (examining the Greek word usage, comments of other godly saints, etc) that I’ve ever seen:

   To give example of what I mean, remember the issue I brought up regarding how it seems that there is a case to be made for differing errors being given differing levels of  response, from the instructions in TITUS on ‘Rebuke Sharply’ to Timothy’s ‘And the Lord’s Servant shall not quarrel…’? Investigate this…..

On Second Timothy 2:23-26

On Titus 1

       Even on the verse regarding Paul calling men dogs (Philippians 3:2) and how folks take that as justification for making fun of folks, saying ‘Well didn’t Paul call false teachers DOGS??’, did some research on that as well…..and it was a trip seeing that the application folks give on that verse (i.e. Paul used sharp language/derided folks so I can too) may not be as accurate as we think…especially if we’re not understanding the groups he was adressing and the CONTEXT of that culture/the word usage:

 For example,

In the epistle to Titus, there were false teachers there which were doing much damage and Titus was told to rebuke them sharply:

Titus 1
1Paul, a servant of God and an apostle of Jesus Christ for the faith of God’s elect and the knowledge of the truth that leads to godliness— 2a faith and knowledge resting on the hope of eternal life, which God, who does not lie, promised before the beginning of time, 3and at his appointed season he brought his word to light through the preaching entrusted to me by the command of God our Savior,

4To Titus, my true son in our common faith:
Grace and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Savior.

Titus’ Task on Crete

5The reason I left you in Crete was that you might straighten out what was left unfinished and appoint[a] elders in every town, as I directed you. 6An elder must be blameless, the husband of but one wife, a man whose children believe and are not open to the charge of being wild and disobedient.

7Since an overseer[b] is entrusted with God’s work, he must be blameless—not overbearing, not quick-tempered, not given to drunkenness, not violent, not pursuing dishonest gain. 8Rather he must be hospitable, one who loves what is good, who is self-controlled, upright, holy and disciplined. 9He must hold firmly to the trustworthy message as it has been taught, so that he can encourage others by sound doctrine and refute those who oppose it.

10For there are many rebellious people, mere talkers and deceivers, especially those of the circumcision group. 11They must be silenced, because they are ruining whole households by teaching things they ought not to teach—and that for the sake of dishonest gain. 12Even one of their own prophets has said, “Cretans are always liars, evil brutes, lazy gluttons.” 13This testimony is true. Therefore, rebuke them sharply, so that they will be sound in the faith 14and will pay no attention to Jewish myths or to the commands of those who reject the truth. 15To the pure, all things are pure, but to those who are corrupted and do not believe, nothing is pure. In fact, both their minds and consciences are corrupted. 16They claim to know God, but by their actions they deny him. They are detestable, disobedient and unfit for doing anything good.

However, in the fellowship where Timoty was stationed, there were false teachers there as well…and yet Timothy was given instructions on how to deal with the situation as well:

Timothy 2

1You then, my son, be strong in the grace that is in Christ Jesus. 2And the things you have heard me say in the presence of many witnesses entrust to reliable men who will also be qualified to teach others. 3Endure hardship with us like a good soldier of Christ Jesus. 4No one serving as a soldier gets involved in civilian affairs—he wants to please his commanding officer. 5Similarly, if anyone competes as an athlete, he does not receive the victor’s crown unless he competes according to the rules. 6The hardworking farmer should be the first to receive a share of the crops. 7Reflect on what I am saying, for the Lord will give you insight into all this.

8Remember Jesus Christ, raised from the dead, descended from David. This is my gospel, 9for which I am suffering even to the point of being chained like a criminal. But God’s word is not chained. 10Therefore I endure everything for the sake of the elect, that they too may obtain the salvation that is in Christ Jesus, with eternal glory.

11Here is a trustworthy saying:
If we died with him,
we will also live with him;
12if we endure,
we will also reign with him.
If we disown him,
he will also disown us;
13if we are faithless,
he will remain faithful,
for he cannot disown himself.

A Workman Approved by God

14Keep reminding them of these things. Warn them before God against quarreling about words; it is of no value, and only ruins those who listen. 15Do your best to present yourself to God as one approved, a workman who does not need to be ashamed and who correctly handles the word of truth. 16Avoid godless chatter, because those who indulge in it will become more and more ungodly.

17Their teaching will spread like gangrene. Among them are Hymenaeus and Philetus, 18who have wandered away from the truth. They say that the resurrection has already taken place, and they destroy the faith of some. 19Nevertheless, God’s solid foundation stands firm, sealed with this inscription: “The Lord knows those who are his,”[a] and, “Everyone who confesses the name of the Lord must turn away from wickedness.”

20In a large house there are articles not only of gold and silver, but also of wood and clay; some are for noble purposes and some for ignoble. 21If a man cleanses himself from the latter, he will be an instrument for noble purposes, made holy, useful to the Master and prepared to do any good work.

22Flee the evil desires of youth, and pursue righteousness, faith, love and peace, along with those who call on the Lord out of a pure heart. 23Don’t have anything to do with foolish and stupid arguments, because you know they produce quarrels. 24And the Lord’s servant must not quarrel; instead, he must be kind to everyone, able to teach, not resentful. 25Those who oppose him he must gently instruct, in the hope that God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth, 26and that they will come to their senses and escape from the trap of the devil, who has taken them captive to do his will.

Again, both fellowships were involving false teachers…..and my question is—in light of the popular statment that all false teachers/those holding to their teachings were always severely denounced, why does there seem to be a distinction if false teachers are always supposed to be labeled ONE WAY ONLY (i.e. with sharp words, harsh terminology, etc)? What to make of the situation? Could it be possible that not all error or behavior is in the same category and that differing levels of error warrant differing levels of rebuke/action?

If teaching something false is what makes someone a false teacher, then What of the times when we were teaching something that we genuinely believed to be the truth of God’s Word and were sincerly doing so to please the Lord, but later came to realize that what we were teaching wasn’t really what a paticular text meant? Or that the application of what we were teaching was flawed?

Were we false teachers then when we had less understanding on an issue?

    My understanding is that the FALSE TEACHERS IN CRETE were of a ENTIRELY DIFFERENT CATEGORY than those in TIMOTHY’S AREA and thus subject to a whole different set of rules because the degree of ERROR was not in the same level.

For example, When I used to attend this college (CLAFLIN UNIVERSITY) in Orangeburg, SC, there was this church I used to attend there and the pastor once approached me on an issue he was having with me on prayer.

He noted that whenever I’d pray, I said “Lord, please help me….” or “Lord, please do this…..” and said that it was improper to ask the Lord for things in that manner. He then procedded to go to Matthew 7:7-8:

Ask, Seek, Knock

7″Ask and it will be given to you; seek and you will find; knock and the door will be opened to you. 8For everyone who asks receives; he who seeks finds; and to him who knocks, the door will be opened.

From his perspective, he believed that whenever you ask for something , it should always end in the form of a (?) question mark, as in “Lord, will you please do this for me? or “Lord, would you be willing to….?

He then procedded to say how my asking in the form of “Lord, please do this……” was Commanding, DEMANDING/NOT RESPECTFUL and that it was one of the reasons why people who do so do not have their prayers answered……but of course, I thought that was QUITE ABSURD, seeing that that were MANY forms of asking and that while some children ask in the form of “May I please?, other ask in the form of “Please do this” and that, regardless of the form, what MATTERED WAS THE STATE OF ONE’S HEART and whether or not they were seeking to honor the LORD/SIMPLY ASK!!!!

Of course, he disagreed with me……and that was cool, for we were obviously coming from 2 different perspectives, and I think that neither of us would’ve gotten through to each other because of the issue of PERCEPTION—-THE FACT THAT OUR PERCEPTION OF WHAT IT MEANS TO ASK RESULTED IN TWO DIFFERENT EXPECTATIONS/APPROACHES ON A SITUATION…..

But then again, I did always take notice of how his church, despite how it helped me greatly when I was there, was ALSO under the covering of BENNY HINN, whose was well associated with teaching many wrong teachings within WOF, TAUGHT MANY OF THE SAME THINGS HINN TAUGHT, and played the SAME music that they always played at HINN’S SERVICES, as well as MANY OTHER INTERESTING THINGS

Moreover, as it is with many within WOF making it an issue of using the word “IF”, THERE WAS A GOOD BIT OF TIME WHERE I HONESTLY DIDN’T KNOW WHAT TO DO when it came to the whole “ASKING” TERMINOLOGY issue. Though I felt peace whenever I’d simply ask the Lord for something and knew my heart was right, the PASTORS words made me question myself whenever I prayed without asking in a question format.

Often times, I wondered if perhaps I was off and God WASN’T REALLY HEARING ME because I didn’t say it in the form of question……or whether or not my asking without a question mark at the end was truly indicative of MY BEING DEMANDING EVERY TIME I PRAY.

Consequently, I went from praying constantly to NOT PRAYING AT ALL for fear that God really didn’t care for my prayers if they weren’t according to the PASTORS’S SUGGESTION, and there was no PEACE/JOY in what I WAS DOING AT ALL …..and though I EVENTUALLY got over it, I CANNOT TELL YOU HOW FRUSTRATING IT WAS TO EXPERIENCE IT THEN. P …..


 That all said, was that man’s error–even though it hurt my faith a bit—on the same level as say another preacher who was SLEEPING AROUND AND IN THE NAME OF THE LORD JUSTIFYING IT? Should the man who taught me error been treated with DERISION AND MOCKERY BECAUSE HE WAS TEACHING ERROR ON SOMETHING? I don’t think so because again, in my humble understanding of the Word of God, his error was not the same CATEGORY. With the teachers in CRETE, they had a BAD REPUTATION EVEN AMONG UNSAVED FOLKS!!!! That’s significantly different than a  teaching in Scripture such as “Jesus already came back” which can be damaging since it’s not biblical and leads to discouragement and yet not lead to someone committing ALL OUT IMMORALITY AS THHE FALSE TEACHERS IN CRETE (who were the INFAMOUS JUDAZIERS, and literally teaching ANOTHER GOSPEL ALL TOGETHER…AS WELL AS RISING RIOTS AGAINST THE APOSTLES, among other actions as well) by the way) did

        What follows is a list of all of the common verses people use (and that you’ve probably heard of  before) when it comes to name-calling/sharp words and how it’s appropiate/something to delight in (As it oftens comes off by many):

?They are ravenous wolves (Matthew 7:15-16)

?They are practicers of lawlessness (Matthew 7:22-23)

?They are hypocrites ( Matt 15:7-9)

?They are thieves (John 10:1)

?They are slaves of their own appetites (Romans 16:18)

?They are men of flesh (1 Cor 3:1-4)

?They are peddlers of the word of Christ(2 Cor 2:17)

?They are accursed (Galatians 1:6-8)

?They are tricksters and schemers (Ephesians 4:14)

?They are deluders (Ephesians 4:14)

?They are deceivers (Colossians 2:8)

?They are defrauders (Colossians 2:18-19)

?They are teachers of strange doctrine (1 Timothy 1:3)

?They are blasphemers, and have been handed over to Satan (1 Timothy 1:19-20)

?They are teachers of myth (2 Timothy 4:3-4)

?They are paying attention to deceitful spirits and doctrines of demons (1 Timothy 4:1-3)

?They are liars (1 Timothy 4:1-3)

?They are conceited and understand nothing (1 Timothy 6:3-4)

?They have gone astray (1 Timothy 6:20-21)

?They are evil men, deceiving and being deceived (2 Timothy 3:13)

?They are empty talkers, after sordid gain (Titus 1:10-11)

?They turn away from the truth (Titus 1:13-14)

?They are false prophets, false teachers, greedy exploiters (2 Peter 2:1-4)

?They are stains and blemishes, greedy, loving of wages of unrighteuosness (2 Peter 2:13-15)

?They are slaves of corruption (2 Peter 2:19-20)

?They are ungodly (Jude 4)

?They are rebellious people (Isaiah 30:9)


Mat 15:7 [Ye] hypocrites, well did Esaias prophesy of you, saying,

Mat 16:3 And in the morning, [It will be] foul weather to day: for the sky is red and lowring. O [ye] hypocrites, ye can discern the face of the sky; but can ye not [discern] the signs of the times?

Mat 22:18 But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, Why tempt ye me, [ye] hypocrites?

Act 20:29 For I know this, that after my departing shall grievous wolves enter in among you, not sparing the flock.

Mat 23:13 But woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven against men: for ye neither go in [yourselves], neither suffer ye them that are entering to go in.

Tts 1:16 They profess that they know God; but in works they deny [him], being abominable, and disobedient, and unto every good work reprobate.

Mat 23:14 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye devour widows?houses, and for a pretence make long prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation.

2 TiMOTHY 3:13 But evil men and seducers shall wax worse and worse, deceiving, and being deceived.

Mat 23:15 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye compass sea and land to make one proselyte, and when he is made, ye make him twofold more the child of hell than yourselves.

2Pe 2:1 ?But there were false prophets also among the people, even as there shall be false teachers among you, who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring upon themselves swift destruction.

2Pe 2:2 And many shall follow their pernicious ways; by reason of whom the way of truth shall be evil spoken of.

2Pe 2:3 And through covetousness shall they with feigned words make merchandise of you: whose judgment now of a long time lingereth not, and their damnation slumbereth not.

Mat 23:25 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and excess.

Tts 1:10 ?For there are many unruly and vain talkers and deceivers, specially they of the circumcision:

Tts 1:11 Whose mouths must be stopped, who subvert whole houses, teaching things which they ought not, for filthy lucre̼ sake.

Tts 1:12 One of themselves, [even] a prophet of their own, said, The Cretians [are] alway liars, evil beasts, slow bellies.

Tts 1:13 This witness is true. Wherefore REBUKE THEM SHARPLY, that they may be sound in the faith;

Mat 23:27 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are like unto whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful outward, but are within full of dead [men̼] bones, and of all uncleanness.

Mar 7:6 He answered and said unto them, Well hath Esaias prophesied of you hypocrites, as it is written, This people honoureth me with [their] lips, but their heart is far from me.

Luk 11:44 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are as graves which appear not, and the men that walk over [them] are not aware [of them].

Mat 15:14 ?they be blind leaders of the blind. And if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch.

Mat 23:27 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are like unto whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful outward, but are within full of dead [men̼] bones, and of all uncleanness.

Philemon 3:2 Beware of dogs, beware of evil workersMark 13:22 For false Christs and false prophets shall rise, and shall shew signs and wonders, to seduce, if [it were] possible, even the elect.

2 Peter 2:12 ?But these, as natural brute beasts, made to be taken and destroyed, speak evil of the things that they understand not; and shall utterly perish in their own corruption;

2 Peter 2:13 And shall receive the reward of unrighteousness, [as] they that count it pleasure to riot in the day time. Spots [they are] and blemishes, sporting themselves with their own deceivings while they feast with you;

2 Peter 2:14 Having eyes full of adultery, and that cannot cease from sin; beguiling unstable souls: an heart they have exercised with covetous practices; cursed children:

2 Peter 2:15 Which have forsaken the right way, and are gone astray, following the way of Balaam [the son] of Bosor, who loved the wages of unrighteousness;

2 Peter 2:17 These are wells without water, clouds that are carried with a tempest; to whom the mist of darkness is reserved for ever.

2 Peter 2:18 ?For when they speak great swelling [words] of vanity, they allure through the lusts of the flesh, [through much] wantonness, those that were clean escaped from them who live in error.

2 Peter 2:19 While they promise them liberty, they themselves are the servants of corruption: for of whom a man is overcome, of the same is he brought in bondage.

2 Peter 2:20 For if after they have escaped the pollutions of the world through the knowledge of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, they are again entangled therein, and overcome, the latter end is worse with them than the beginning.

2 Peter 2:21 For it had been better for them not to have known the way of righteousness, than, after they have known [it], to turn from the holy commandment delivered unto them.

2 Peter 2:22 But it is happened unto them according to the true proverb, The dog [is] turned to his own vomit again; and the sow that was washed to her wallowing in the mire.

Then Elijah said to the prophets of Baal, Ýwhoose for yourselves one bull and prepare it first, for you are many, and call upon the name of your god, but put no fire to it.?6And they took the bull that was given them, and they prepared it and called upon the name of Baal from morning until noon, saying, Ùq Baal, answer us!?But there was no voice, and no one answered. And they limped around the altar that they had made.27And at noon Elijah mocked them, saying, Ýwry aloud, for he is a god. Either he is musing, or he is relieving himself, or he is on a journey, or perhaps he is asleep and must be awakened.?/P> Mat 7:15 Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep̼ clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves.

2 Corinthians 11:13 For such [are] false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into the apostles of Christ.

1 John 2:18 ?Little children, it is the last time: and as ye have heard that antichrist shall come, even now are there MANY ANTI CHRISTS; whereby we know that it is the last time.

If you’d like, do a study through this website on each of the verses given and you may find out some interesting things that people rarely mention in regards to them (AS I’m trying to do)….and that are in much need of bringing up again for CLARITY/TRUTH……but that’s just me (and of course, you know where I tend to stand on things….the standard we̺e to hold as SERVANTS OF THE LORD, as said in II Timothy 2:23-26, http://www.raystedman.org/timothy/3788.html )

And of course, there are other excellent resources to deal with that have been of much benefit to me. If and when there are issues that people are having with false teachers, Gods Word makes clear how we̺e to go about handling them (2 Timothy 2:15-26)?and for excellent articles on the issue, please consider these:

On defining what’s ORTHODOXY VERSES HERESY…..and even thing such as ABBERATIONAL TEACHINGS:




On the issue of dealing with PEOPLE IN THE CATEGORY OF FALSE TEAHCERS, consider these:




On dealing with the 3 CATEGORIES OF PEOPLE JESUS encountered and the standard response for each category)
encountered and

the standard response for each category
On Recognizing UNTEACHABLE PEOPLE (from Proverbs)

Probably one of the ones youÊé best benefit from, as it deals with the passage
in Galatians 6 ON correcting others in error and how to go about the process

THIS is the one dea ling with FOOLS and what the Word says on them

The above one deals with communication skills

This above one deals with how to properly EXHORT PEOPLE

ABOVE ONE one deals with speaking the TRUTH IN LOVE?


This above one deals with what a Biblical view of EXHORTTION looks like?

This one BELOW deals with James 3 ON TAMING THE TONGUE, which of course gets DOWNPLAYED ALL OF THE TIME:

That said, here are some articles that I think should be considered before procedding on the issue:




 http://www.bible.org/series.php?series_id=56 http://mymiscellanies.blogspot.com/2007/10/measuring-discernment-and-critism-wit h.html



https://emissary7.wordpress.com/2007/12/19/the-new-phariseeical-movement-in-the-c lub-or-not/


On the issue of DISCERNMENT/CORRECTION & EXPOSING ERROR (as well as guarding our hearts throughout the process and not throwing out the BABY WITH THE BATHWATER):’

Check out this one entitled A Biblical Guide To Orthodoxy And Heresy (http://www.apologeticsindex.org/d01.html & http://www.apologeticsindex.org/d01a.html ), and for anyone willing to wade through/study the information in it¡¯s ENTIRETY, I think that it would be of great benefit to those who may have friends/family involved within Herectical Movements and who are looking for solid ways to help them out…….

On the issue of Unity/AVOIDING SLANDER (innaccurate representations ) as much as possible (even when it feels you’ve been slandered against)
Proverbs 25:15
Through patience a ruler can be persuaded, and a gentle tongue can break a bone.

Ephesians 4

Unity in the Body of Christ

 1As a prisoner for the Lord, then, I urge you to live a life worthy of the calling you have received. 2Be completely humble and gentle; be patient, bearing with one another in love. 3Make every effort to keep the unity of the Spirit through the bond of peace. 4There is one body and one Spirit¡ªjust as you were called to one hope when you were called¡ª 5one Lord, one faith, one baptism; 6one God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all.

Philippians 2

Imitating Christ¡¯s Humility

 1If you have any encouragement from being united with Christ, if any comfort from his love, if any fellowship with the Spirit, if any tenderness and compassion, 2then make my joy complete by being like-minded, having the same love, being one in spirit and purpose. 3Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit, but in humility consider others better than yourselves.

Philippians 4:1-6

Exhortations2I plead with Euodia and I plead with Syntyche to agree with each other in the Lord. 3Yes, and I ask you, loyal yokefellow,[a] help these women who have contended at my side in the cause of the gospel, along with Clement and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life.
4Rejoice in the Lord always. I will say it again: Rejoice! 5Let your gentleness be evident to all.

       Like we talked about before, The ultimate thing that matters above all else is LOVE FOR THE LORD/NEIGHBOR¡­.because in doing that, ALL OF THE PURPOSE OF THE TORAH IS NATURALLY FUFILLED¡­.& BY fufilling those two commands, a person keeps all the others, for they summarize the 10 Commandments/other OT MORAL LAWS¡­..& rather than focusing or worrying about all we should not do, we should concentrate on all we can do to show our love for God/others…..and to be unified:

John 17:20-23
Jesus Prays for All Believers

20¡°My prayer is not for them alone. I pray also for those who will believe in me through their message, 21that all of them may be one, Father, just as you are in me and I am in you. May they also be in us so that the world may believe that you have sent me. 22I have given them the glory that you gave me, that they may be one as we are one: 23I in them and you in me. May they be brought to complete unity to let the world know that you sent me and have loved them even as you have loved me.

Acts 4:32
[ The Believers Share Their Possessions ] All the believers were one in heart and mind. No one claimed that any of his possessions was his own, but they shared everything they had.

1 Corinthians 1:10
[ Divisions in the Church ] I appeal to you, brothers, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that all of you agree with one another so that there may be no divisions among you and that you may be perfectly united in mind and thought.

Galatians 5:13-15
< BR>13You, my brothers, were called to be free. But do not use your freedom to indulge the sinful nature[a]; rather, serve one another in love. 14The entire law is summed up in a single command: ¡°Love your neighbor as yourself.¡± 15If you keep on biting and devouring each other, watch out or you will be destroyed by each other


<H4>Philippians 2


Imitating Christ¡¯s Humility

1If you have any encouragement from being united with Christ, if any comfort from his love, if any fellowship with the Spirit, if any tenderness and compassion, 2then make my joy complete by being like-minded, having the same love, being one in spirit and purpose. 3Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit, but in humility consider others better than yourselves.



Romans 13:9

The commandments, ¡°Do not commit adultery,¡± ¡°Do not murder,¡± ¡°Do not steal,¡± ¡°Do not covet,¡± and whatever other commandment there may be, are summed up in this one rule: ¡°Love your neighbor as yourself.¡±


Matthew 22:34-40

The Greatest Commandment

34Hearing that Jesus had silenced the Sadducees, the Pharisees got together. 35One of them, an expert in the law, tested him with this question:
[b]36¡åTeacher, which is the greatest commandment in the Law?¡± 37Jesus replied: ¡± ¡®Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind.¡¯[a] 38This is the first and greatest commandment. 39And the second is like it: ¡®Love your neighbor as yourself.¡¯ 40All the Law and the Prophets hang on these two commandments.¡±

Romans 12

9Love must be sincere. Hate what is evil; cling to what is good. 10Be devoted to one another in brotherly love. Honor one another above yourselves. 11Never be lacking in zeal, but keep your spiritual fervor, serving the Lord. 12Be joyful in hope, patient in affliction, faithful in prayer. 13Share with God’s people who are in need. Practice hospitality.

14Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse. 15Rejoice with those who rejoice; mourn with those who mourn. 16Live in harmony with one another. Do not be proud, but be willing to associate with people of low position.[c] Do not be conceited.

Ephesians 4:29-30

29Do not let any unwholesome talk come out of your mouths, but only what is helpful for building others up according to their needs, that it may benefit those who listen. 30And do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, with whom you were sealed for the day of redemption.

Colossians 3

12Therefore, as God¡¯s chosen people, holy and dearly loved, clothe yourselves with compassion, kindness, humility, gentleness and patience. 13Bear with each other and forgive whatever grievances you may have against one another. Forgive as the Lord forgave you. 14And over all these virtues put on love, which binds them all together in perfect unity.

15Let the peace of Christ rule in your hearts, since as members of one body you were called to peace. And be thankful. 16Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly as you teach and admonish one another with all wisdom, and as you sing psalms, hymns and spiritual songs with gratitude in your hearts to God. 17And w hatever you do, whether in word or deed, do it all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him.

1 Peter 4:7-11

7The end of all things is near. Therefore be clear minded and self-controlled so that you can pray. 8Above all, love each other deeply, because love covers over a multitude of sins. 9Offer hospitality to one another without grumbling. 10Each one should use whatever gift he has received to serve others, faithfully administering God’s grace in its various forms. 11If anyone speaks, he should do it as one speaking the very words of God. If anyone serves, he should do it with the strength God provides, so that in all things God may be praised through Jesus Christ. To him be the glory and the power for ever and ever. Amen.



1 Peter 2:17

Show proper respect to everyone: Love the brotherhood of believers, fear God, honor the king.

1 Peter 3:8

[ Suffering for Doing Good ] Finally, all of you, live in harmony with one another; be sympathetic, love as brothers, be compassionate and humble

2 Peter 1:5-8

 5For this very reason, make every effort to add to your faith goodness; and to goodness, knowledge; 6and to knowledge, self-control; and to self-control, perseverance; and to perseverance, godliness; 7and to godliness, brotherly kindness; and to brotherly kindness, love. 8For if you possess these qualities in increasing measure, they will keep you from being ineffective and unproductive in your knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Proverbs 22:11
11 He who loves a pure heart and whose speech is gracious will have the king for his friend.

Proverbs 17:14
14 Starting a quarrel is like breaching a dam;
so drop the matter before a dispute breaks out.

Proverbs 17:19
He who loves a quarrel loves sin; he who builds a high gate invites destruction.

Proverbs 20:3
3 It is to a man¡¯s honor to avoid strife,
but every fool is quick to quarrel

Proverbs 22:10
10 Drive out the mocker, and out goes strife;
quarrels and insults are ended.

Proverbs 26:21
21 As charcoal to embers and as wood to fire,
so is a quarrelsome man for kindling strife.

James 3:13-18

Two Kinds of Wisdom

 13Who is wise and understanding among you? Let him show it by his good life, by deeds done in the humility that comes from wisdom. 14But if you harbor bitter envy and selfish ambition in your hearts do not boast about it or deny the truth. 15Such “wisdom” does not come down from heaven but is earthly, unspiritual, of the devil. 16For where you have envy and selfish ambition, there you find disorder and every evil practice.

 17But the wisdom that comes from heaven is first of all pure; then peace-loving, considerate, submissive, full of mercy and good fruit, impartial and sincere. 18Peacemakers who sow in peace raise a harvest of righteousness.




Romans 12:17-18


Be careful to do what is right in the eyes of everybody. 18If it is possible, as far as it depends on you, live at peace with everyone.







Titus 3

Doing what is good

 1Remind the people to be subject to rulers and authorities, to be obedient, to be ready to do whatever is good, 2to slander no one, to be peaceable and considerate, and to show true humility toward all men.


 3At one time we too were foolish, disobedient, deceived and enslaved by all kinds of passions and pleasures. We lived in malice and envy, being hated and hating one another. 4But when the kindness and love of God our Savior appeared, 5he saved us, not because of righteous things we had done, but because of his mercy. He saved us through the washing of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit, 6whom he poured out on us generously through Jesus Christ our Savior, 7so that, having been justified by his grace, we might become heirs having the hope of eternal life. 8This is a trustworthy saying. And I want you to stress these things, so that those who have trusted in God may be careful to d devote themselves to doing what is good. These things are excellent and profitable for everyone.


Hebrews 12:14-15 

Warning Against Refusing God

 14Make every effort to live in peace with all men and to be holy; without holiness no one will see the Lord. 15See to it that no one misses the grace of God and that no bitter root grows up to cause trouble and defile many.



On one dealing with this paticular scripture many forget (in regards to the APOSTASY we face nowdays):

Jude 1:17-23

A call to persevere

17But, dear friends, remember what the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ foretold. 18They said to you, ¡°In the last times there will be scoffers who will follow their own ungodly desires.¡± 19These are the men who divide you, who follow mere natural instincts and do not have the Spirit.

20But you, dear friends, build yourselves up in your most holy faith and pray in the Holy Spirit. 21Keep yourselves in God¡¯s love as you wait for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ to bring you to eternal life.

22Be merciful to those who doubt; 23snatch others from the fire and save them; to others show mer cy, mixed with fear¡ªhating even the clothing stained by corrupted flesh.










 Now, ON WITH THE SHOW!!!!!!!










Titus 1:9-2:2

9He must hold firmly to the trustworthy message as it has been taught, so that he can encourage others by sound doctrine and refute those who oppose it.

10For there are many rebellious people, mere talkers and deceivers, especially those of the circumcision group. 11They must be silenced, because they are ruining whole households by teaching things they ought not to teach—and that for the sake of dishonest gain. 12Even one of their own prophets has said, “Cretans are always liars, evil brutes, lazy gluttons.” 13This testimony is true. Therefore, rebuke them sharply, so that they will be sound in the faith 14and will pay no attention to Jewish myths or to the commands of those who reject the truth. 15To the pure, all things are pure, but to those who are corrupted and do not believe, nothing is pure. In fact, both their minds and consciences are corrupted. 16They claim to know God, but by their actions they deny him. They are detestable, disobedient and unfit for doing anything good.

Titus 2

What Must Be Taught to Various Groups

1You must teach what is in accord with sound doctrine. 2Teach the older men to be temperate, worthy of respect, self-controlled, and sound in faith, in love and in endurance.

Titus 1:9 holding fast (PMPMSA) the faithful word which is in accordance with the teaching, so that he may be (3SPAS) able both to exhort (PAN) in sound (PAPFSD) doctrine and to refute (PAPMPA) those who contradict (PAN) (NASB: Lockman)

Greek: antechomenon (PMPMSA) tou kata ten didachen pistou logou, hina dunatos e (3SPAS) kai parakalein (PAN) en te didaskalia| te hugiainouse (PAPFSD) kai tous antilegontas (PAPMPA) elegchein. (PAN)
Barclay: with a strong grip on the truly reliable message which Christian teaching gave to him, that he may be well able to encourage the members of the Church with health-giving teaching, and to convict the opponents of the faith. (Westminster Press)
GWT: He must be devoted to the trustworthy message we teach. Then he can use these accurate teachings to encourage people and correct those who oppose the word. (
KJV: Holding fast the faithful word as he hath been taught, that he may be able by sound doctrine both to exhort and to convince the gainsayers.
Phillips: a man who takes his stand on the orthodox faith, so that he can by sound teaching both stimulate faith and confute opposition. (
Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: holding fast, yes, more than that, paying attention to the trustworthy Word in accordance with the teaching, in order that he may be able both to be exhorting in the teaching which is sound and to be convicting those who are opposing [Christianity]. (
Young’s Literal: holding — according to the teaching — to the steadfast word, that he may be able also to exhort in the sound teaching, and the gainsayers to convict;


Paul Apple
Albert Barnes
Brian Bell
John Calvin
Steven Cole
Thomas Constable
Ron Daniels
Dave Guzik
Grace Notes
Matthew Henry
IVP Commentary
Jamieson, F, B
Hampton Keathley
Phil Newton
Ron Ritchie
A T Robertson
Gil Rugh
C H Spurgeon
Ray Stedman
Marvin Vincent
Precept Ministries

Titus Commentary Pdf
Titus 1
Titus 1 – MS Word Doc
Titus 1:7-9

Titus 1:9 Elders: Men of the Word
Titus Notes in Pdf Format
Titus 1:9-2:1 Stand Against False Teachers
Titus 1
Titus 1:8,9
Titus 1
Titus 1
Titus 1
Titus 1:5-9 Concerning Elders
Titus 1:5-9 Elders in the Church
Titus 1:1-9 Need For Godly Elders
Titus 1
Titus 1:7-9 Elder’s Character
Titus 1: Exposition
Titus: Truth and Proof
Titus 1 Word Studies

Titus – Download Lesson 1

HOLDING FAST THE FAITHFUL WORD WHICH IS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE TEACHING: antechomenon (PMPMSA) tou pistou logou kata ten didachen: (Job 2:3; 27:6; Pr 23:23; 1 Th 5:21; 2 Th 2:15; 2 Ti 1:13; Jude 1:3; Rev 2:25; 3:3, 11) (1 Ti 1:15; 4:9; 6:3; 2 Ti 2:2) (2:1; 2:7 2:8 1 Ti 1:10; 6:3 2 Ti 4:3)

with a strong grip on the truly reliable message which Christian teaching gave to him (Barclay)

He must be devoted to the trustworthy message we teach (GWT), the steadfast word (YLT)

holding fast, yes, more than that, paying attention to the trustworthy Word in accordance with the teaching (Wuest)

He must have a strong and steadfast belief in the trustworthy message he was taught (NLT)

He must hold firmly to the trustworthy message as it has been taught (NIV)

He must have a firm grasp of the word that is trustworthy in accordance with the teaching (NRSV)

he must hold firm to the sure word as taught (RSV)

He must hold firmly to the message which can be trusted and which agrees with the doctrine (TEV)

he must have a firm grasp of the unchanging message of the tradition, (NJB)

clinging to the faithful word according to the doctrine taught (DNT)

cling to the faithful word with fervent devotion and unflagging diligence (MacArthur)

Paul moves from the personal qualifications discussed above to the “doctrinal qualifications” of elders and overseers, expounding a truth which is critical to the spiritual health of the body of Christ.

Adam Clarke says the overseer is to be

“conscientiously retaining, and zealously maintaining, the true Christian doctrine” (Clarke’s Commentary)

Holding fast (472) (antechomai from antí = against or opposite to + écho = hold) means literally to hold one’s self against, the primary sense being to keep one’s self directly opposite someone or something. It conveys the sense of cleaving to, strongly adhering to or holding firmly (in context to the faithful word).

The second meaning of antechomai in the NT is to help or assist by giving supplementary support or aid to (1Thes 5:14).

Antechomai expresses the sense of a strong attachment to someone or something. To be devoted (feeling or demonstrating loyalty and thus ardent, devout, loving). To cling to (adhere as if glued firmly to and so to hold on tightly and tenaciously).

Antechomai is used 4 times in NT (1x Mt; 1x Lu; 1x 1Thes; 1x Titus).

Matthew 6:24 (note) “No one can serve two masters; for either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will hold to (cleave to, holding firmly to, devoted to) one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and mammon.

Luke 16:13 “No servant can serve two masters; for either he will hate the one, and love the other, or else he will hold to one, and despise the other. You cannot serve God and mammon.”

1Thessalonians 5:14 (note) And we urge you, brethren, admonish the unruly, encourage the fainthearted, help (support) the weak, be patient with all men.

Titus 1:9 holding fast the faithful word which is in accordance with the teaching, that he may be able both to exhort in sound doctrine and to refute those who contradict.

There are 16 uses of antechomai in the Septuagint (LXX) (Deut. 32:41; Neh. 4:16; Job 33:24; Prov. 3:18; 4:6; Eccl. 7:18; Isa. 48:2; 56:2, 4, 6; 57:13; Jer. 2:8; 8:2; 44:10; Dan. 10:21; Zeph. 1:6)

Proverbs 3:18 She (wisdom) is a tree of life to those who take hold (Lxx = antechomai) of her, and happy are all who hold her fast.

The Greek writer Sophocles uses this verb of a physical action to

“hold one’s hand against one’s head so as to shade the eyes”.

Ulysees S. Grant said…

Hold fast to the Bible as the sheet-anchor of our liberties; write its precepts on your hearts and practise them in your lives. To the influence of this book we are indebted for the progress made in true civilization, and to this we must look for our guide in the future.

Overseers and elders must continue to cling tenaciously and uncompromisingly to the faithful Word even in the face of opposition and the temptation to abandon it for something more “palatable” or “ear tickling” (see notes 2 Timothy 4:3; 4:4).

He is not to be like a child

“tossed here and there by waves, and carried about by every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, by craftiness in deceitful scheming” (see note Ephesians 4:14).

The leader instead must be characterized by doctrinal stability so that he is emboldened like Paul to not

“shrink from declaring… the whole purpose of God.” (Acts 20:27)

Barnes says the overseer

“is to hold (the truth) fast, in opposition to one who would wrest it away, and in opposition to all false teachers, and to all systems of false philosophy. He must be a man who is firm in his belief of the doctrines of the Christian faith, and a man who can be relied on to maintain and defend those doctrines in all circumstances.” (Albert Barnes’ Notes on the Bible)

Paul uses the middle voice (reflexive = an action initiated by and directed back onto the subject) for antechomai to picture the overseer holding himself face to face as it were with the Word of God because he knows it to be trustworthy and dependable, not unreliable and treacherous like the spurious teachings of those who contradict.

One way the overseer is to adhere to the Word is by not adding to

“the words of the prophecy of this book” or taking “away from the words of the book” (see notes Revelation 22:18; Revelation 22:19).

In a similar instruction Paul commanded Timothy who appears to have been

overseeing” the Ephesian church to “retain the standard of sound words which you have heard from me.” (see note 2 Timothy 1:13)

The overseer should

“examine everything carefully;” and “hold fast to that which is good” (see note 1Thessalonians 5:21)

The overseer needs to heed the wisdom of the proverb which exhorts us to

“Buy truth, and do not sell it. Get wisdom and instruction and understanding.” (Pr 23:23)

The overseer is to

“stand firm and hold to the traditions which (he was) taught, whether by word of mouth or by letter from us (Paul, et al).” (2 Th 2:15)

The overseer is to be alerted if

“anyone advocates a different doctrine, and does not agree with sound words, those of our Lord Jesus Christ, and with the doctrine conforming to godliness.” (1Ti 6:3).

The overseer needs to have the attitude of Jude who wrote

“Beloved, while I was making every effort to write you about our common salvation, I felt the necessity to write to you appealing that you contend earnestly for the faith which was once for all delivered to the saints.” (Jude 1:3)

In short, the overseer is to be a man characterized by doctrinal stability.

The LORD testifies to Satan concerning Job that

“there is no one like him on the earth, a blameless and upright man fearing God and turning away from evil. And he still holds fast his integrity, although you incited Me against him, to ruin him without cause.” (Job 2:3)

Later Job himself affirms that

“I have not departed from the command of His lips; I have treasured the words of His mouth more than my necessary food.” (Job 23:12)

Job held fast to his integrity because he held fast to the trustworthy word of God and so too must overseers of God’s flock.

Antechomai is used 15 times in the Septuagint (Greek of Hebrew OT). For example speaking of wisdom, Solomon writes that

“She is a tree of life to those who take hold of (antechomai) her, And happy are all who hold her fast.” (Pr 3:18 )

The overseer clings with utmost confidence to the faithful word because he knows that it alone is completely trustworthy and reliable, unlike the spurious doctrines of the false teachers.

The faithful word – trustworthy, reliable, believable, dependable Word of God. There is nothing else like it in time and eternity. Hold it even when all else falls or fails for it never will beloved!

Faithful (4103) (pistos from peítho = to persuade – induce one by words to believe, have confidence) is something or someone who is worthy of faith or keeps promises and is applied to God, humans, His Word, etc

Pistos is used 67 times in the NT (Matt 24:45; 25:21, 23; Luke 12:42; 16:10-12; 19:17; John 20:27; Acts 10:45; 13:34; 16:1, 15; 1 Cor 1:9; 4:2, 17; 7:25; 10:13; 2 Cor 1:18; 6:15; Gal 3:9; Eph 1:1; 6:21; Col 1:2, 7; 4:7, 9; 1 Thess 5:24; 2 Thess 3:3; 1 Tim 1:12, 15; 3:1, 11; 4:3, 9-10, 12; 5:16; 6:2; 2 Tim 2:2, 11, 13; Titus 1:6, 9; 3:8; Heb 2:17; 3:2, 5; 10:23; 11:11; 1 Pet 1:21; 4:19; 5:12; 1 John 1:9; 3 John 1:5; Rev 1:5; 2:10, 13; 3:14; 17:14; 19:11; 21:5; 22:6) Pistos is translated believe(2), believer(4), believers(5), believing(1), faithful(43), Faithful(1), faithful one(1), faithfully(1), sure(1), trustworthy(7), who believe(1).

Pistos occurs some 46 times in the Septuagint (LXX) (Num 12:7; Deut 7:9; 28:59; 32:4; 1 Sam 2:35; 3:20; 22:14; 25:28; 2 Sam 20:18; 23:1; 1 Kgs 11:38; Neh 9:8; 13:13; Job 12:20; 17:9; Ps 19:7; 89:28, 37; 101:6; 111:7; 145:13; Prov 2:12; 11:13, 21; 13:17; 14:5, 25; 17:6f; 20:6; 25:13; Isa 1:21, 26; 8:2; 22:23, 25; 33:16; 49:7; 55:3; Jer 42:5; Dan 2:45; 6:4; Hos 5:9; ;

Vincent gives a nice summary (expanded in the discussion that follows) of the meaning of pistos, faithful, writing that it is used

“(1), of one who shows Himself faithful in the discharge of a duty or the administration of a trust (Mt 24:45). Hence, trustworthy (2Ti 2:2). Of things that can be relied upon (2Ti 2:11). (2), Confiding; trusting; a believer (Gal 3:9; Acts16:1; 2Cor 6:15; 1Ti 5:16)” (Word Studies in the New Testament)

Webster says that “Faithful” means firm in adherence to whatever one owes allegiance and implies unswerving adherence to a person or thing or to the oath or promise by which a tie was contracted.

Pistos is used in two senses in the NT

1) An active meaning = trusting or believing

This is the less frequent usage. This sense speaks of a sinner exercising faith in the Lord Jesus. In the first NT use in this sense, Jesus “said to Thomas,

“Reach here your finger, and see My hands; and reach here your hand, and put it into My side; and be not unbelieving, but believing.” (Jn 20:27)

Paul instructs Timothy to

“let those who have believers (pistos) as their masters not be disrespectful to them because they are brethren, but let them serve them all the more, because those who partake of the benefit are believers (pistos) and beloved. Teach and preach these principles.” (1Ti 6:2)

When pistos is used in this active sense to refer to the faith which a lost sinner must place in the Lord Jesus in order to be saved, it includes the following ideas — the act of considering the Lord Jesus worthy of trust as to His character and motives, the act of placing confidence in His ability to do just what He says He will do, the act of entrusting the salvation of his soul into the hands of the Lord Jesus, the act of committing the work of saving his soul to the care of the Lord. This means a definite taking of one’s self out of one’s own keeping and entrusting one’s self into the keeping of the Lord Jesus. Thus Paul says

So then those who are of faith are blessed with Abraham, the believer (pistos). (Gal 3:9)

Using a striking contrast, Paul asks

what harmony has Christ with Belial, or what has a believer in common with an unbeliever? (2Cor 6:15)

Luke records that Paul

came also to Derbe and to Lystra. And behold, a certain disciple was there, named Timothy, the son of a Jewish woman who was a believer, but his father was a Greek. (Acts 16:1)

Note also that with regard to believers, they are spoken of sometimes in the Active sense (as “believers”) and sometimes in the Passive (as “faithful”).

The New Testament concept of faith includes three main elements, mutually connected and requisite, though according to circumstances sometimes one and sometimes another may be more prominent

(1) a fully convinced acknowledgement of the revelation of grace; (2) a self-surrendering fellowship (adhesion); and (3) a fully assured and unswerving trust (and with this at the same time hope) in the God of salvation or in Christ. (Modified from Cremer)

2) A passive meaning = trustworthy or faithful.

Here the basic idea is that of trustworthiness. In this sense pistos describes God, Christ, servants, His Word as faithful, reliable, worthy of belief or trust, , , dependable.

Marvin Vincent adds that pistos used of God describes Him as

True to his own nature and promises; keeping faith with Himself and with man.

Paul writes that even

if we are faithless, He remains faithful; for He cannot deny Himself. (see note 2 Timothy 2:13)

Pistos in this passive sense is used of one who shows Himself faithful in the discharge of a duty or the administration of a trust

Who then is the faithful and sensible slave whom his master put in charge of his household to give them their food at the proper time? Mt 24:45.

Hence, pistos describes the one who is trustworthy

And the things which you have heard from me in the presence of many witnesses, these entrust to faithful men, who will be able to teach others also. see note 2 Timothy 2:2).

Of the Word of God (which is the sense pistos is used in Titus 1:9) that can be relied upon

“It is a trustworthy statement: if any man aspires to the office of overseer, it is a fine work he desires to do.” 1Ti 3:1

“It is a trustworthy statement: For if we died with Him, we shall also live with Him.” – see note 2 Timothy 2:11

In this passive sense of trustworthy or faithful, pistos is applied to God as fulfilling His own promises (see notes Hebrews 10:23; Hebrews 11:11), as fulfilling the purpose for which He called men (see note 1Thessalonians 5:24; 1Cor 1:9), as responding with guardianship to the trust reposed in Him by men (1Cor 10:13; see note 1 Peter 4:19). Christ is faithful (2Thes 3:3; see notes Hebrews 3:2; Hebrews 2:17 Revelation 19:11) Christ as the faithful witness (see notes Revelation 1:5; Revelation 3:14). God’s and Christ’s faithfulness in these verses speak not only of His essential being (faithful is Who He is), but also of His faithfulness toward us, as shown for example in the famous verse

“If we confess our sins, He is faithful and righteous to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.” (1 Jn 1:9)

In the papyri, we find the following illustrations of the use of pistos — “Whom no one would trust even if they were willing to work” = confidence in the person’s character and motives. “I have trusted no one to take it to her” = confidence in the ability of another to perform a certain task.

The Septuagint (Greek of the Hebrew OT) uses pistos 42 times, the first occurrence describing God’s testimony about Moses declaring

“Not so, with My servant Moses, He is faithful in all My household.” (Nu 12:7)

Moses in turn records the following of God writing

“Know therefore that the LORD your God, He is God, the faithful God, Who keeps His covenant and His lovingkindness to a thousandth generation with those who love Him and keep His commandments.” (Dt 7:9)

Notice the seal of assurance stamped upon God’s covenant. It is backed up by His faithful character.

In addition there are three uses of pistos in the Septuagint which parallel the truth in Titus 1:9 (“the faithful word”), two of these uses in Psalms and the other in Daniel in reference to one of the most foundational prophecies ever recorded in Daniel 2:

Psalm 19:7The law of the LORD is perfect, restoring the soul. The testimony of the LORD is sure (Translated in Septuagint with pistos – “faithful”), making wise the simple.” (Comment: Spurgeon comments that “God’s witness in his Word is so sure that we may draw solid comfort from it both for time and eternity, and so sure that no attacks made upon it, however fierce or subtle, can ever weaken its force. What a blessing that in a world of uncertainties we have something sure to rest upon! We hasten from the quicksands of human speculations to the solid ground of divine revelation.” – see Spurgeon’s note)

Psalm 111:7The works of His hands are truth and justice. All His precepts are sure (Translated in Septuagint with pistos – “faithful”).”

Spurgeon (his commentary) writes “All that he has appointed or decreed shall surely stand, and his precepts which he has proclaimed shall be found worthy of our obedience, for surely they are founded in justice and are meant for our lasting good. He is no fickle despot, commanding one thing one day and another another, but His commands remain absolutely unaltered, their necessity equally unquestionable, their excellence permanently proven, and their reward eternally secure. Take the word commandments to relate either to his decrees or his precepts, and we have in each case an important sense; but it seems more in accordance with the connection to take the first sense and consider the words to refer to the ordinances, appointments, or decrees of the great King.”

Whatever the mighty Lord decrees,
Shall stand for ever sure.
The settled purpose of his heart
To ages shall endure.

Daniel 2:45 “Inasmuch as you saw that a stone was cut out of the mountain without hands and that it crushed the iron, the bronze, the clay, the silver, and the gold, the great God has made known to the king what will take place in the future; so the dream is true, and its interpretation is trustworthy.”

In short, God’s Holy Word is trustworthy, dependable, reliable and sure because God Himself is faithful (1Cor 1:9, 1Thessalonians 5:24 [note]) and cannot lie (Titus 1:2 [note], Nu 23:19). Because God’s Word is faithful, those who teach and preach the Word must also be faithful or trustworthy (1Cor 4:2, cf Num 12:7) and “entrust it to faithful men who will be able to teach others also” (see note 2 Timothy 2:2).

The same combination of “faithful” (pistos) and “logos” translated here as “faithful word” is found five other times in the pastoral epistles and each of these other occurrences is translated “trustworthy statement” (1Tim 1:15, 3:1, 4:9, see notes 2 Timothy 2:11, Titus 3:8).

In the Revelation John records some of God’s final words on His word: “And He who sits on the throne said, “Behold, I am making all things new.” And He *said, “Write, for these words (logos) are faithful and true.” (see note Revelation 21:5) God always speaks truth ( “Sanctify them in the truth; Thy word is truth” Jn 17:17) One of the seven angels said to John “These words (logos) are faithful and true”; and the Lord, the God of the spirits of the prophets, sent His angel to show to His bond-servants the things which must shortly take place.” (see note Revelation 22:6)

God’s Word will surely come to pass. Therefore, it behooves the overseer to be diligent to cling to this precious trustworthy Word as he leads the flock into all truth and counters all lies and liars with the Word of Truth

Word (3056) (logos from légō = to speak with words; English = logic, logical) means something said and describes a communication whereby the mind finds expression in words. Although Lógos is most often translated word which Webster defines as “something that is said, a statement, an utterance”, the Greek understanding of lógos is somewhat more complex.

In the Greek mind and as used by secular and philosophical Greek writers, lógos did not mean merely the name of an object but was an expression of the thought behind that object’s name. Let me illustrate this somewhat subtle nuance in the meaning of lógos with an example from the Septuagint (LXX) (Greek of the Hebrew OT) in which lógos is used in the well known phrase the Ten Commandments.

The Septuagint translates this phrase using the word lógos as “the ten (deka) words (logoi)” (Ex 34:28), this phrase giving us the familiar term Decalogue. Clearly each of the “Ten Commandments” is not just words but words which express a thought or concept behind those words.

This then is the essence of the meaning of lógos and so it should not be surprising that depending on the context lógos is translated with words such as “saying, instruction, message, news, preaching, question, statement, teaching, etc”. This understanding of lógos also helps understand John’s repeated usage of this Greek word as a synonym for the second Person of the Godhead, the Lord Jesus Christ (see discussion below).

Lógos then is a general term for speaking, but always used for speaking with rational content. Lógos is a word uttered by the human voice which embodies an underlying concept or idea. When one has spoken the sum total of their thoughts concerning something, they have given to their hearer a total concept of that thing. Thus the word lógos conveys the idea of “a total concept” of anything. Lógos means the word or outward form by which the inward thought is expressed and made known. It can also refer to the inward thought or reason itself. Note then that lógos does not refer merely to a part of speech but to a concept or idea. In other words, in classical Greek, lógos never meant just a word in the grammatical sense as the mere name of a thing, but rather the thing referred to, the material, not the formal part. In fact, the Greek language has 3 other words (rhema, onoma, epos) which designate a word in its grammatical sense. Lógos refers to the total expression whereas rhema (see word study) for example is used of a part of speech in a sentence. In other words rhema, emphasizes the parts rather than the whole.

Cremer explains that lógos is used of the living, spoken word,

the word not in its outward form, but with reference to the thought connected with the form,… in short, not the word of language, but of conversation, of discourse; not the word as a part of speech, but the word as part of what is uttered.

Although not every lexicographer would agree with Vincent’s assessment of the origin of lógos, his comments are very interesting and worth noting. He explains that

lógos is from the root “leg-“, appearing in lego, the primitive meaning of which is to lay: then, to pick out, gather, pick up: hence to gather or put words together, and so, to speak. Hence lógos is, first of all, a collecting or collection both of things in the mind, and of words by which they are expressed. It therefore signifies both the outward form by which the inward thought is expressed, and the inward thought itself. (Vincent, M. R. Word studies in the New Testament: Vol. 2, Page 1-25)

Barclay adds that

the Greek term for word is lógos; but lógos does not only mean word; it also means reason. For John, and for all the great thinkers who made use of this idea, these two meanings were always closely intertwined. Whenever they used lógos the twin ideas of the Word of God and the Reason of God were in their minds. (Barclay, W: The Daily Study Bible Series, Rev. ed. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press)

As alluded to earlier lógos is translated with multiple English words in the NASB, as shown by the following compilation with the parentheses indicating the number of occurrences — account(7), accounting(2), accounts(2), answer(1), appearance(1), complaint(1), exhortation (1), have to do(1), instruction(1), length (1), matter(4), matters(1), message(10), news(3), preaching(1), question(2), reason(2), reasonable(1), remark(1), report(1), said(1), say(1), saying(4), sayings(1), speaker(1), speech(10), statement(18), story(1), talk(1), teaching(2), thing(2), things(1), utterance(2), what he says(1), what (1), word(179), words(61).

The following discussion will not deal with all of these nuances of lógos.

For more discussion and specific uses of the individual words by which logos is translated click Vine’s main lexicon entry “Word” and you might also check his less in depth discussions at cause, communication, do, doctrine, fame, intent, matter, mouth, preaching, question, reason, reckoning, rumor, saying, shew, speech, talk, thing, tidings, treatise, utterance, work

Lógos was in use among Greeks before John used it, the Greeks using it to denote the principle which maintains order in world. In connection with the Greek word for “seed” in its adjective form, Lógos was used to express the generative principle or creative force in nature. The Stoics believed that this world was permeated with that Lógos. It was the Lógos which put sense into the world. It was the Lógos which kept the stars in their courses and the planets in their appointed tracks. It was the Lógos which controlled the ordered succession of night and day, and summer and winter and spring and autumn. The Lógos was the reason and the mind of God in the universe, making it an order and not a chaos.

In summary, Greek philosophers, in attempting to understand the relationship between God and the universe, spoke of an unknown mediator between God and the universe, naming this mediator, “Logos” John tells them that this mediator unknown to them is our Lord, and he uses the same name “Lógos .” In the first verse of his gospel John gives us a summary outline of Jesus’ preexistence, His fellowship with God the Father in His preincarnate state and His absolute deity writing that

“In the beginning was the Lógos, and the Lógos was with God, and the Lógos was God.” (Jn 1:1)

If there is any doubt about Who John was referring to, he goes on to describe the incarnation writing that

“the Lógos became flesh, and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, glory as of the only begotten from the Father, full of grace and truth.” (Jn 1:14)

In his first epistle John writes that

“What was from the beginning, what we have heard, what we have seen with our eyes, what we beheld and our hands handled, concerning the Word of Life.” (1Jn 1:1)

John describing Jesus’ triumphant return at the end of this age writes that

“He is clothed with a robe dipped in blood; and His name is called The Word of God.” (see note Revelation 19:13).

Barclay adds that the Greeks

had the conception of the Logos. In Greek logos means two things—it means word and it means reason. The Jew was entirely familiar with the all-powerful word of God. “God said, let there be light; and there was light” (Ge 1:3). The Greek was entirely familiar with the thought of reason. He looked at this world; he saw a magnificent and dependable order. Night and day came with unfailing regularity; the year kept its seasons in unvarying course; the stars and the planets moved in their unaltering path; nature had her unvarying laws. What produced this order? The Greek answered unhesitatingly, The Logos, the mind of God, is responsible for the majestic order of the world. He went on, What is it that gives man power to think, to reason and to know? Again he answered unhesitatingly, The Logos, the mind of God, dwelling within a man makes him a thinking rational being. (Barclay, W: The Daily Study Bible Series, Rev. ed. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press)

Lógos also can refer to a computation, reckoning or a formal accounting, especially of one’s actions, and frequently with a figurative extension of commercial terminology (account, accounts). For example, Paul writes that

“each one of us shall give account (logos) of himself to God.” (see note Romans 14:12)

In a similar use Jesus told about a certain rich man who called to his steward

“and said to him, ‘What is this I hear about you? Give an account (lógos) of your stewardship, for you can no longer be steward.” (Lu 16:2)

After explaining that

“the word (logos) of God is living and active and sharper than any two-edged sword, and piercing as far as the division of soul and spirit, of both joints and marrow, and able to judge the thoughts and intentions of the heart.”

the writer then brings home his point emphasizing that

“there is no creature hidden from His sight, but all things are open and laid bare to the eyes of Him with whom we have to do.” (see notes Hebrews 4:12; 4:13).

This last phrase reads more literally “with Whom is our reckoning (lógos)” or “to Whom we must render an account (lógos).”

The Gospel and Logos

The phrase “the word of the Lord,” the revealed will of God, is synonymous with the gospel in several instances (Acts 8:25; 12:24 13:48 13:49; 15:35 15:36, 16:32;19:10; 1Thessalonians 1:8 [note]; 2Thes 3:1 1 Peter 1:25 [note])

The gospel is also frequently referred to as “the word of God” (click here to study all 41 occurrences of this phrase in the NT).

In Acts we read that

“when they had prayed, the place where they had gathered together was shaken, and they were all filled with (controlled by) the Holy Spirit, and began to speak the word of God (this phrase referring to the gospel as it does also in the following verses in this paragraph) with boldness.” (Acts 4:31)

“Now the apostles and the brethren who were throughout Judea heard that the Gentiles also had received (accepted deliberately and readily ~ welcomed) the word of God.” (Acts 11:1)

“And when they reached Salamis, they began to proclaim the word of God in the synagogues of the Jews; and they also had John as their helper…who was with the proconsul, Sergius Paulus, a man of intelligence. This man summoned Barnabas and Saul and sought to hear the word of God….And the next Sabbath nearly the whole city assembled to hear the word of God.” (Acts 13:5,7,44).

Paul writes

that most of the brethren, trusting in the Lord because of my imprisonment, have far more courage to speak the word of God (“the gospel”) without fear. (see note Philippians 1:14)

The writer of Hebrews exhorts us to

“Remember those who led you, who spoke the word of God (“the gospel”) to you; and considering the result of their conduct, imitate their faith.” (see note Hebrews 13:7)

John describes what he saw writing that…

when He broke the fifth seal, I saw underneath the altar the souls of those who had been slain because of the word of God (“the gospel”), and because of the testimony which they had maintained.” (see note Revelation 6:9)

“And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given to them. And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded because of the testimony of Jesus and because of the word of God (“the gospel”), and those who had not worshiped the beast or his image, and had not received the mark upon their forehead and upon their hand; and they came to life and reigned with Christ for a thousand years.” (see note Revelation 20:4)

Paul writes to the saints at Thessalonica

“And for this reason we also constantly thank God that when you received from us the word (lógos) of God’s message, you accepted it not as the word (lógos) of men, but for what it really is, the word (lógos) of God, which also performs its work in you who believe.” (see note 1Thessalonians 2:13)

Lógos is also used in several other phrases as a synonym for the gospel —

“Brethren, sons of Abraham’s family, and those among you who fear God, to us the word of this salvation is sent out.” (Acts 13:26);

“Therefore they spent a long time there speaking boldly with reliance upon the Lord, who was bearing witness to the word of His grace (possessing the inherent power to transform), granting that signs and wonders be done by their hands ” (Acts 14:3);

Peter gave the first of 3 speeches at the Council (Sanhedrin) that amount to one of the strongest defenses of salvation by grace through faith alone contained in Scripture.

“And after there had been much debate, Peter stood up and said to them, “Brethren, you know that in the early days God made a choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of the gospel and believe” (Acts 15:7);

Paul contrasts the word (lógos) of the Cross to the speech (lógos) of human wisdom writing that

“Christ did not send me to baptize, but to preach the gospel, not in cleverness of speech (lógos), that the cross of Christ should not be made void. For the word (lógos) of the cross (the gospel in all its fullness centering on the incarnation and crucifixion of Christ) is to those who are perishing foolishness, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God.” (1Cor 1:17-18)

Paul goes on to explain

“namely, that God was in Christ reconciling the world to Himself, not counting their trespasses against them, and He has committed to us the word of reconciliation.” (2 Cor 5:19)

“in the word of truth, in the power of God; by the weapons of righteousness for the right hand and the left” (2 Cor 6:7);

“In Him, you also, after listening to the message (lógos) of truth, the gospel of your salvation—having also believed, you were sealed in Him with the Holy Spirit of promise” (Eph 1:13)

Paul exhorted believers to keep

“holding fast (better translated “holding out or forth” the gospel) the word of life, so that in the day of Christ I may have cause to glory because I did not run in vain nor toil in vain.” (see note Philippians 2:16)

Paul gave thanks

because of the hope laid up for you (saints at Colossae) in heaven, of which you previously heard in the word of truth, the gospel,” (see note Colossians 1:5)

The writer of Hebrews adds that…

For everyone who partakes only of milk is not accustomed to the word of righteousness, for he is a babe but solid food is for the mature, who because of practice have their senses trained to discern good and evil.” (see notes Hebrews 5:13; 5:14).

Lógos is used occasionally for the sum of all God’s utterances, Jesus declaring that the Pharisees and Scribes were

invalidating (depriving of authority, canceling) the word (lógos) of God by your tradition which you have handed down; and you do many things such as that. (Mk 7:13).

Lógos was used to refer to ability as an orator combined with exceptional performance (his “deed”), the “word and deed” being distinguishing marks in Greek society.

Luke conveys this same thought speaking of Christ and of Moses:

“And He said to them (on the road to Emmaus after His resurrection), “What things?” And they said to Him, “The things about Jesus the Nazarene, who was a prophet mighty in deed and word in the sight of God and all the people.” (Lu 24:19)

“And Moses was educated in all the learning of the Egyptians, and he was a man of power in words and deeds.” (Acts 7:22)

In the last section of his epistle to the Writing to the Colossians Paul exhorts them that

“whatever you do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks through Him to God the Father.” (see note Colossians 3:17)

Lógos is used 20 times in the pastoral epistles (including the 5 uses mentioned in the preceding paragraph). In the first letter to Timothy Paul reminded his young protégée that

“In pointing out these things to the brethren, you will be a good servant of Christ Jesus, constantly (present tense = habitual, lifestyle, passive = being, action on subject comes from outside the recipient) nourished (continually being trained up) on the words (lógos) of the faith and of the sound doctrine which you have been following.” (1Ti 4:6)

Continual feeding on the truths of Scripture is essential to the spiritual health of all Christians, but especially overseers.

John MacArthur gives a stinging commentary on the modern church noting that

“This quality (being constantly nourished on the words of the faith) is basic to excellence in ministry, but is sadly lacking in the church today. Much contemporary preaching is weak and produces weak churches because it reflects a lack of biblical knowledge and a minimal commitment to the study of Scripture. For many pastors, study is an unwelcome intrusion into their schedule. It interrupts the routine of administrative tasks and meetings with which they occupy themselves. They study only enough to make a sermon, not to feed their own hearts and think deeply and carefully on divine truth. The result is impotent sermons that fall on hard hearts and have little impact.(MacArthur, John: 1Timothy Moody Press)

Paul reminds Timothy that “the word of God” is powerful and cannot be “imprisoned” (see note 2 Timothy 2:9), that it is “the word of truth” that the workman is to handle accurately (see note 2 Timothy 2:15), that he is to “preach the word (being) ready in season and out” (see note 2 Timothy 4:3), and that the “teaching” (lógos) had been “vigorously opposed” implying that this would likely be Timothy’s as experience as well as all overseers. (see note 2 Timothy 4:15).

Paul emphasized the vital role of the lógos in the spiritual life of the church, commanding the Ephesian overseers to

“Be on guard for yourselves (note priority is first a call to self-examination) and for all the flock, among which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God which He purchased with His own blood.” (Acts 20:28).

Paul then goes on to say

“and now I commend (entrust) you to God and to the word of [God’s] grace, which is able to build you up and to give you the inheritance among all those who are sanctified.” (Acts 20:32).

In other words, if an overseer is to feed (exhort) and protect (refute those who speak against) the flock, he must be a student of the Scriptures and devoted to prayer. Only then will the overseer have true knowledge of the “faithful word” and the wisdom to be able to apply that knowledge.

The Septuagint (Greek of the Hebrew OT) uses lógos 849 times. In one well known use the psalmist asks

“How can a young man keep his way pure? By keeping it according to Thy word (lógos).” (Ps 119:9)

Spurgeon commenting on this verse gives good advice for young men, especially those who might aspire to be overseers writing

“Young man, the Bible must be your chart, and you must exercise great watchfulness that your way may be according to its directions. You must take heed to your daily life as well as study your Bible, and you must study your Bible that you may take heed to your daily life. To obey the Lord and walk uprightly will need all our heart and soul and mind. Yet the word is absolutely necessary, for otherwise care will darken into morbid anxiety, and conscientiousness may become superstition. It is not enough to desire to be right; for ignorance may make us think that we are doing God service when we are provoking him, and the fact of our ignorance will not reverse the character of our action, however much it may mitigate its criminality. Let each person, young or old, who desires to be holy have a holy watchfulness in his heart, and keep the Holy Bible before his open eye. There he will find every turn of the road marked down, every slough and miry place pointed out, with the way to go through unsoiled; and there, too, he will find light for his darkness, comfort for his weariness, and company for his loneliness, so that by its help he will reach the benediction of the first verse of the psalm (“How blessed are those whose way is blameless, who walk in the law of the LORD” Ps 119:1Spurgeon’s note on verse 1), which suggested the psalmist’s inquiry and awakened his desires.” (Spurgeon, C. H. The Treasury of David)

MacArthur says that

“It is failure in the area of holding fast the faithful word that is largely responsible for the superficial, self-elevating preaching and teaching in many evangelical churches…the weak, shallow, insipid sermonettes for Christianettes” Here is the real villain that has led so many to be converted to what they consider relevancy and therefore to preach a pampering psychology or become standup comics, storytellers, clever speechmakers or entertainers who turn churches into what John Piper in his most excellent book The Supremacy of God in Preaching has called “the slapstick of evangelical worship” (Baker, 1990, p 21). Preaching and teaching are the primary responsibilities of elders.” (MacArthur. Titus: Moody Press)

Dearly beloved elder/overseer, are you feeding the sheep or too busy to even feed yourself? The spiritual health of the flock is at stake. Peter informs us that it is only by the intake of the

“pure milk of the Word that…you may grow in respect to salvation.” (see note 1 Peter 2:2)

Jesus prayed for His disciples (including overseers) asking His Father to “Sanctify them (make them holy, separate from the profane world around them. How?) in the truth” emphasizing that “Thy Word is truth.” (Jn 17:17)

Warren Wiersbe described a naive church member who said

“We don’t want doctrine; just give us helpful devotional thoughts!” does not not know what he is saying. Apart from the truth (and this means Bible doctrine), there can be no spiritual help or health. (Wiersbe, W: Bible Exposition Commentary. 1989. Victor) Overseers are to hold fast to sound, healthy doctrine irregardless of what other “pastures” the sheep clamor for!

The overseer (and every believer) is enabled “to stand firm against the schemes of the devil” (see note Ephesians 6:11) because he has “girded (his) loins with truth” (see note Ephesians 6:14) The only “offensive” weapon the overseer can wield against the lies of Satan is “the sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God” (see note Ephesians 6:17).

The overseer should cling to the faithful word because it is

the word of His grace (Acts 14:3)

the word of the gospel (Acts 15:7)

the word of promise (see note Romans 9:9)

the word of the Cross (1Cor 1:18)

the word of reconciliation (2Co 5:19)

the word of life (see note Philippians 2:16)

the word of truth (2 Cor 6:7, see note Colossians 1:5)

the message of truth (see note Ephesians 1:13)

the word of His power (see note Hebrews 1:3)

the word of righteousness (see note Hebrews 5:13)

the word of Christ (see notes Ro 10:17; Col 3:16)

the word of the Lord (see the 18 occurrences in NAS NT)

the word of God (see the 39 occurrences in NAS NT)

Thus saith the Lord! should “punctuate” the ending of every exhortation and refutation the overseer speaks forth. See the interesting A. W. Pink booklet on Profiting From the Word.

C. H. Spurgeon’s exhortation is applicable to overseers. He writes

”It is blessed, to eat into the very soul of the Bible until, at last, you come to talk in Scriptural language, and your spirit is flavored with the words of the Lord, so that your blood is Bibline and the very essence of the Bible flows from you.”


In accordance with the teaching” (katá ten didachen) is the first phrase in the Greek sentence, which emphasizes the importance of being certain that the “faithful word” is in fact the word which squares with the teaching of the Lord Jesus and His apostles. Any other word is not reliable or trustworthy.

The faithful word to which the overseer is to tenaciously cling is that which is “according to the teaching” or in full agreement with the teaching of

“so great a salvation” which “was at the first spoken through the Lord (Jesus)” and “was confirmed (made sure, proved valid)…by those who heard (apostles)” (Heb 2:3).

Note that “The teaching(1322) (didache) is modified in the original Greek by the definite article “the” which defines this as not just any teaching but the specific body of teaching passed on from the apostles and suggests that Christian teaching was beginning to be formed into some type of recognized, orthodox doctrine.

Isaiah gives a good test of any overseer (or any teacher for that matter) is

“To the law and to the testimony! If they do not speak according to this word, it is because they have no dawn.” (Isa 8:20)

Isaiah taught that if the predictions of the false prophets did not harmonize with written revelation, their counsel was darkness and not light. Similarly Paul is instructing Titus that every “word” must be tested by plumb line of “the teaching” (which today equates with the Holy Bible, the overseer’s absolute “yardstick”)

In his first letter to Timothy, Paul emphasizes that the overseer

“must (continually) be (this is not optional)…able to teach (didaktikós) (apt or skillful at teaching, able to communicate spiritual truth)” (1Ti 3:2)

He must continually

“work hard (toiling to the point of weariness) at preaching and teaching.” (1Ti 5:17)

In the second epistle to Timothy Paul explained that

the Lord’s bond-servant must not be quarrelsome, but be kind to all, able to teach (didaktikós), patient when wronged.” (see note 2 Timothy 2:24)

J Vernon McGee writes…

“I feel that men who hold office in a church should be Bible-trained men. During World War II we had what was called “ninety-day wonders.” The army needed more officers and so they put them through a short course in a hurry, and they came up with some rather peculiar second lieutenants in those days. Remember that Paul told Timothy to “lay hands suddenly on no man …” (1Ti 5:22). You are not to have a man converted one night, ask him to give his testimony the next night, make him an officer in the church on the third night, an evangelist on the fourth, and the pastor of the church on the fifth night! We sometimes do things like that today, and it is very unfortunate for the church. A church officer should be able to stand on the Word of God and to give it out.” (McGee, J V: Thru the Bible Commentary: Nashville: Thomas Nelson)

SO THAT HE MAY BE ABLE BOTH TO EXHORT IN SOUND DOCTRINE: hina dunatos e (3SPAS) kai parakalein (PAN) te hugiainouse (PAPFSD):

Then he can use these accurate teachings to encourage people (GWT)

that he may be well able to encourage the members of the Church with health-giving teaching (Barclay)

then he will be able to encourage others with right teaching (NLT)

that he will be able to give exhortation in such healthy teaching (NET)

so that he may be able both to give stimulating instruction and encouragement in sound (wholesome) doctrine (Amp)

so that he may be able to give comfort by right teaching (BBE)

so that he may be well qualified both to encourage others with sound teaching (WNT)

So that (2443) (hina) is a purpose statement explaining why the overseer needs to cling to the reliable Word of God for only in this manner will he be enabled to carry out effective exhortation and refutation.

John Calvin wrote that the overseer

ought to have two voices: one, for gathering the sheep and another, for warding off and driving away wolves and thieves.”

Calvin adds that

This is remarkable applause (marked commendation) bestowed on the word of God, when it is pronounced to be sufficient, not only for governing the teachable, but for subduing the obstinacy of enemies. And, indeed, the power of truth revealed by the Lord is such that it easily vanquishes all falsehoods.

Able (1415) (dunatos from dunamai = referring to power one has by virtue of inherent ability and resources; see study of dunamis) means powerful, able, strong.

Able describes that which has sufficient or necessary power, means, skill, or resources to accomplish an objective.

Dunatos is found 32 times in the NT (Matt. 19:26; 24:24; 26:39; Mk. 9:23; 10:27; 13:22; 14:35f; Lk. 1:49; 14:31; 18:27; 24:19; Acts 2:24; 7:22; 11:17; 18:24; 20:16; 25:5; Rom. 4:21; 9:22; 11:23; 12:18; 15:1; 1 Co. 1:26; 2 Co. 10:4; 12:10; 13:9; Gal. 4:15; 2 Tim. 1:12; Tit. 1:9; Heb. 11:19; Jas. 3:2) and is translated able(6), could(1), impossible*(1), influential men(1), man of power(1), mighty(3), Mighty One(1), possible(12), power(1), powerful(1), strong(3), strong enough(1).

Below are a representative sampling of the 32 NT uses of dunatos which make for a very enlightening and encouraging study in itself. Note especially what you learn about God and also about men and what made men dunatos.

with God all things are possible (dunatos) (Mt 19:26)

All things are possible (dunatos) to him who believes. (Mark 9:23)

With men it is impossible, but not with God; for all things are possible with God. (Mark 10:27, cp Lu 18:27)

For the Mighty One (dunatos) has done great things for me; And holy is His name. (Luke 1:49)

And God raised Him (Jesus) up again, putting an end to the agony of death, since it was impossible (literally not possible {dunatos}) for Him to be held in its power. (Acts 2:24 )

And Moses was educated in all the learning of the Egyptians, and he was a man of power in words and deeds. (Acts 7:22)

(Apollos) was mighty in the Scriptures. (Acts 18:24)

(Abraham) being fully assured that what He had promised, He was able also to perform. (see note Romans 4:21)

God…His power (dunatos) (see note Romans 9:22)

If possible, so far as it depends on you, be at peace with all men. (see note Romans 12:18)

Now we who are strong ought to bear the weaknesses of those without strength and not just please ourselves. (see note Romans 15:1)

For consider your calling, brethren, that there were not many wise according to the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble (1 Corinthians 1:26)

the weapons of our warfare are not of the flesh, but divinely powerful for the destruction of fortresses. (2Corinthians 10:4)

Therefore I am well content with weaknesses, with insults, with distresses, with persecutions, with difficulties, for Christ’s sake; for when I am weak, then I am strong. (2Corinthians 12:10)

For this reason I also suffer these things, but I am not ashamed; for I know whom I have believed and I am convinced that He is able to guard what I have entrusted to Him until that day. (see note 2 Timothy 1:12)

He considered that God is able to raise men even from the dead; from which he also received him back as a type. (see note Hebrews 11:19)

For we all stumble in many ways. If anyone does not stumble in what he says, he is a perfect man, able to bridle the whole body as well. (James 3:2)

TDNT notes that all words deriving from the stem duna– have the basic meaning of “being able,” of “capacity” in virtue of an ability) pertains to being capable, able (having the ability to perform some function; having sufficient power, skill, or resources to accomplish an objective), adept (highly skilled or well-trained implying aptitude as well as proficiency) or competent (being what is necessary; having requisite or adequate ability or qualities).

An overseer who makes it his habit or lifestyle to continually be “holding fast the faithful word” is an overseer who will possess the inherent ability, competence and skill to exhort the saints and refute the spiritual opponents. As we might say today “He will have what it takes!”

Overseers therefore should seek to emulate their Lord “Who was…mighty (dunatos) in deed and word in the sight of God and all the people” (Lu 24:19), the Lord’s servant Moses who “was a man of power (dunatos) in words and deeds.” (Acts 7:22) or Apollos who “was mighty (dunatos) in the Scriptures.” (Acts 18:24).

Paul uses dunatos to describe the “weapons” available not only to the overseer but to every saint writing that although

“we walk in the flesh, we do not war according to the flesh, for the weapons of our warfare are not of the flesh, but divinely powerful (dunatos) for the destruction of fortresses.” (2 Co 10:3-4)

The overseer must avoid carnal weapons like intimidation, manipulation, trickery, double-talk, rumor, and hypocritical behavior for they are not effective means of refutation.

Paul explained how “dunatos” became a reality in his life writing that “And He (the Lord Jesus) has said to me,

“My grace is sufficient for you, for power (dunamis) is perfected in weakness.” Most gladly, therefore, I will rather boast about my weaknesses, that the power (dunamis) of Christ may dwell in me. Therefore I am well content with weaknesses, with insults, with distresses, with persecutions, with difficulties, for Christ’s sake; for when I am weak, then I am strong. (dunatos)” (2 Cor 12:9-10)

Paul realized that when he was naturally weak the Lord would provide the power that he lacked and needed and would enable him to do things he could not have done had he been naturally strong. It is when we are most conscious of our own weakness and nothingness that we most depend on the power of God. And it is when we are thus cast on Him in complete dependence that His power is manifested to us, and we are truly strong (dunatos).

The overseer needs to be a shepherd capable of feeding the sheep and driving away the predators.

Exhort (3870) (parakaleo from para = beside + kaleo = call) means literally to call alongside of for the purpose of giving strength and help. Parakaleo described a defense counsel in a court of law who served as the accused person’s advocate and who pleaded the cause of the accused. Parakaleo displays a wealth of meanings but in the present context seems to teaching which was encouraging, comforting, and edifying to the believers, especially in light of the false teachers alluded to in the subsequent passages.

The overseer’s purpose is to admonish, strengthen, encourage the saints, enabling them to understand doctrine. This Biblical exhortation becomes the foundation of spiritual living, building the believers up in the faith.

William Barclay emphasizes that pastors, elders and overseers

“must be able to encourage the (saints)… The navy has a rule which says that no officer shall speak discouragingly to any other officer in the performance of his duties. There is always something wrong with preaching or teaching whose effect is to discourage others. The function of the true Christian preacher and teacher is not to drive a man to despair, but to lift him up to hope.” (Barclay, W: The Daily Study Bible Series, Rev. ed. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press)

Sound (5198) (hugiaino verb from noun hugies {click study} = whole, healthy; English = hygiene, hygienic = making sick folk whole; figuratively right or accurate) means to be in good health, to be healthy and wholesome, referring to literal, physical health as in (Luke 7:10)

Most of the NT uses of hugiaino are figurative, describing that which is free from admixture of error and generally referring to Christian teaching or doctrine which is to accurately or correctly reflect the Bible and God’s will and way. True, incorrupt and unadulterated doctrine.

In a secular use Plutarch records that “these are sound views about the gods and true”

Hugiaino is used 12x in NT (3x Lu; 2x 1Ti; 2x 2Ti; 4x Titus; 1x 3Jn) (hold pointer over blue Titus2:1; 2:7 2:8 1 Ti1:10; 6:3 2 Ti 4:3)

The first three NT uses hugiaino , all by Dr Luke, refer to the literal meaning, to be sound in health, Jesus answering the criticism of the Pharisees and Scribes saying to them that

“It is not those who are well (hugiaino – KJV has “whole” – present tense) who need a physician, but those who are sick.” (Lu 5:31)

The second use is in reference to the healing of the believing centurion’s servant —

“And when those who had been sent returned to the house, they found the slave in good health (hugiaino – KJV has “whole” – present tense) .” (Lu 7:10)

Luke’s third use describes the returned prodigal son…

Luke 15:27 “And he (the father of the prodigal son) said to him, ‘Your brother has come, and your father has killed the fattened calf, because he has received him back safe and sound (this phrase translated by one Greek verb hugiaino – present tense)’

Here are all the other NT uses of this verb hugiaino

1 Timothy 1:10 and immoral men and homosexuals and kidnappers and liars and perjurers, and whatever else is contrary to sound (present tense) teaching,

1 Timothy 6:3 If anyone advocates a different doctrine, and does not agree with sound (present tense) words, those of our Lord Jesus Christ, and with the doctrine conforming to godliness,

2 Timothy 1:13 Retain the standard of sound (present tense) words which you have heard from me, in the faith and love which are in Christ Jesus. (see note)

2 Timothy 4:3 For the time will come when they will not endure sound (present tense) doctrine; but wanting to have their ears tickled, they will accumulate for themselves teachers in accordance to their own desires; (see note)

Titus 1:9 holding fast the faithful word which is in accordance with the teaching, that he may be able both to exhort in sound (present tense) doctrine and to refute those who contradict.

Titus 1:13 This testimony is true. For this cause reprove them severely that they may be sound (present tense) in the faith, (see note) (Comment: Hugiaino conveys the idea of “healthy” in faith or having a faith free from admixture of error)

Titus 2:1 But as for you, speak the things which are fitting for sound (present tense) doctrine. (see note)

Titus 2:2 Older men are to be temperate, dignified, sensible, sound (present tense) in faith, in love, in perseverance. (see note)

3 John 1:2 Beloved, I pray that in all respects you may prosper and be in good health (present tense), just as your soul prospers.

Hugiaino is found 11 times in the Septuagint (LXX) (Gen 29:6; 37:14; 43:27-28; Ex 4:18; 1 Sa 25:6; 2 Sa 14:8; 20:9; Pr 13:13; Dan 10:19)

Hugiaino speaks of teaching which is diametrically opposed to to the sickly, morbid, unpractical teaching of those who speak against the gospel. Isn’t it sad that in our society, so many (even in the church) are health conscious and scrupulous about “soundness” of the food they eat, and yet they exhibit little concern for the integrity of the spiritual food they eat! The validity and power of the overseer’s exhortation lies in its conformity to the great doctrines of divine revelation, not in his eloquence or charisma.

Hugiaino is used literally (by Dr Luke) to describe physical and mental soundness. It means to be healthy (implying full strength and vigor as well as freedom from signs of disease), to be well or to be safe and sound. To the Greeks health was regarded as the normal state and was highly valued.

Hugiaino is used more often in the NT in the figurative sense referring to various things (teaching, doctrine, words, the faith). When referring to doctrine hugiaino means doctrine that is sound (free from flaw, defect, decay, error, fallacy), correct, true, pure, free of error, uncorrupted. Hugiaino denotes the wholesomeness or healthiness of true Christian teaching which is “health-producing.”

Vine writes that hugiaino

“describes the incorruptness of the words and teaching of the faith (and) in its metaphorical use is confined to these three pastoral epistles. While it signifies the essential character of the doctrines of the faith and of the words of God, it also intimates their healthful effect upon the believer in maintaining his soul in holiness and purity.” (Vine, W. Collected writings of W. E. Vine. Nashville: Thomas Nelson )

Paul uses hugiaino only in the figurative or metaphorical sense. In the Pastoral epistles, hugiaino occurs eight times with six uses associated with didaskalia, which is doctrine or teaching. The importance of sound, healthy, wholesome Christian doctrine cannot be overemphasized in regard to the spiritual health of the body of Christ. Would your exhortations to those you are shepherding be characterized by Paul as sound doctrine? The spiritual health and wholeness of your flock is dependent on what you are feeding them.

Paul’s first use in the Pastoral epistles describes various “sicknesses” of the soul (immorality, etc) that were “contrary to (continually opposed to or hostile to) sound (hugiaino) doctrine (didaskalia).” (1Ti 1:10)

Paul goes on to define “sound doctrine” as that which is “Sound, healthy, wholesome doctrine is the only kind of teaching that produces spiritual life and growth. The implication is that false, unsound, unwholesome doctrine produces spiritual disease and debilitation. One can see why it was so critical for overseers to exhort with sound doctrine.

Warren Wiersbe comments that

“It is unfortunate today that we not only have (unsound, unhealthy doctrine) in teaching and preaching, but also in music. Far too many songs not only teach no doctrine, but many even teach false doctrines. A singer has no more right to sing a lie than a teacher has to teach a lie.” (Wiersbe, W: Bible Exposition Commentary. 1989. Victor)

Paul identified three (#1-3) characteristics of false teachers writing that “If (Greek assumes following to be true)

(#1) anyone advocates a different doctrine and

(#2) does not agree with sound (hugiaino) words, those of our Lord Jesus Christ, and

(#3) with the doctrine conforming to godliness,” (1Ti 6:3)

False teachers are not in agreement with spiritually wholesome and (spiritual) health-giving words, here defined as “those of our Lord Jesus Christ”. Note that the effects in life and conduct are the test of the soundness of the teaching. The doctrine of Scripture is always practical, it never consists of merely theological tenets. Sound doctrine promotes godliness. Unsound words, not based on Scripture will always result in an unholy life. Thus the overseer needs to exhort with sound words.

Paul exhorted Timothy to

“Retain the standard of sound (hugiaino) words which you have heard from me, in the faith and love which are in Christ Jesus.” (see note 2 Timothy 1:13)

Timothy, as are all good overseers, is to hold fast the pattern of the sound words, the doctrinal phraseology he received from Paul (this phrase parallels the phrase in Titus 1:9 “according to the teaching”). Timothy is to he is to cling to the very expressions by which this truth is conveyed. Particular words are to be retained and used so that the doctrinal statements of the truth may remain accurate, wholesome and spiritual health producing for future teachers and preachers.

Paul explained that Timothy must preach the Word because

“the time will come when they will not endure sound (hugiaino) doctrine (didaskalia); but wanting to have their ears tickled, they will accumulate for themselves teachers in accordance to their own desires.” (see note 2 Timothy 4:3)

“This testimony is true. For this cause reprove (elegcho – same word here in Titus 1:9) them severely that they may be sound (hugiaino) in the faith” (see note Titus 1:13)

The faith here stands for the sum total of Christian doctrine.

“But as for you, speak the things which are fitting for sound doctrine.” (see note Titus 2:1)

Sound doctrine requires commensurate sound, wholesome behavior. Sound teaching produces spiritual health, and it is of the utmost importance for overseers to see to it that what they minister is of this character. Only thus can practical godliness issue.

Sound doctrine” is doctrine which is true, pure and uncorrupted, in contrast to that of false teachers which corrupts and tears down. Thus sound doctrine builds the saints up in the faith and protects them against the corrupting influence of lies and falsehoods.

“If the doctrine be not sound, vain is the profession of it, and vain its influence. It is good to be zealously affected in a good thing; but zeal for what is not of God will do no good to the souls of men, how sincere so ever that zeal may be.” (Clarke’s Commentary)

Sound biblical doctrine not only should be taught but also adhered to with deep conviction.

Sound doctrine when heard and heeded leads to holy living but when unheard or unheeded leads to unholy living.

Doctrine (1319) (didaskalia) (click word study) refers not to the method of teaching but to the content or the body of knowledge usually taught by speaking and which was constructed so as to shape the listener’s will. Contrary to what is offered in much popular preaching today, the Bible is not a resource for truth but is the divinely revealed source of truth. It is not a supplementary text but the only text. Its truths are not optional but mandatory. Sound doctrine comforts the weary but afflicts the comfortable! And so sinners will be intolerant of the uncomfortable, convicting truth found in sound doctrine.

Doctrine has the double application of exhorting and convicting, of instructing the saints and convicting those in opposition.

AND TO REFUTE THOSE WHO CONTRADICT: kai tous antilegontas (PAPMPA) elegchein (PAN):(11; Acts 18:28; 1Cor 14:24; 2Ti 2:25)

and correct those who oppose the word (GWT)

and the gainsayers to convict (YLT)

and to convince the gainsayers (One who contradicts or denies what is alleged; an opposer) (KJV)

he must be able to show those who are against the true teaching that they are wrong (ICB)

show those who oppose it where they are wrong (NLT)

and also to show the error of those who are opposed to it. (TEV)

and correct those who speak against it (NET)

to refute and convict those who contradict and oppose it [showing the wayward their error] (Amp)

and to reply successfully to opponents (WNT)

Refute those who contradict – Just as a physician must attack infection & disease, so local church leaders must attack false doctrine!

The overseer is to be continually able (dunatos) to rebuke the opposition in such a way that the opponent is compelled to admit the error of his ways, to bring forth conviction or confession.

The overseer should speak forth the faithful word for

All Scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, (elegxis – noun form of elegcho) for correction, for training in righteousness (see note 2 Timothy 3:16).

Paul exhorted Timothy to

preach the word; be ready in season and out of season; reprove (elégchō), rebuke, exhort, with great patience and instruction. (see note 2 Timothy 4:2)

Adam Clarke says the overseer is to

Refute the objections, confound the sophistry, and convert the gainsayers; and thus defend the truth. (Clarke’s Commentary)

Trench says that elegcho means

‘to rebuke another, with such an effectual wielding of the victorious arms of the truth, as to bring him, if not always to a confession, yet at least to a conviction of his sin’…The aim of Christian rebuke is not to humiliate a man, but to enable him to see and recognize and admit the duty and the truth to which he has been either blind or disobedient”.

Hiebert says that reprove (refute)

signifies a presentation of evidence so that the arguments of the opponents are beaten down and proved to be baseless…a firm grasp of the truth is the indispensable preparation for him who would undertake to dispel error. (Titus and Philemon. page 36-37, Moody, 1957).

Refute (1651) (elegcho or elencho is a primary verb but is related to elegchos = bringing to light) means to bring to the light (to reveal hidden things) with the implication that there is adequate proof of wrongdoing. To expose, to convict, to reprove, to shame or disgrace and thus to rebuke another in such a way that they are compelled to see and to admit the error of their ways. To show someone that they have done something wrong and summon them to repent.

Elegcho is used 17 times in NT (1x Mt; 1x Lu; 3x Jn; 1x 1Cor; 2x Eph; 1x 1Ti; 1x 2Ti; 3x Titus; 1x Heb; 1x Js; 1x Jude; 1x Rev)

There is another verb, epitimao, which is somewhat similar to elegcho and also can mean rebuke but in contrast to elegcho, the rebuke associated with epitimao does not bring the individual rebuked to a conviction of fault. It might be because the one rebuked was innocent of the charge or that he was guilty but refused to acknowledge his guilt. Epitimao is used by Mark, for Satan, the fallen angels, and the demons who are incorrigible, refuse to be convicted of their sin and will not acknowledge it nor repent. For example, Mark records that

when Jesus saw that a crowd was rapidly gathering, He rebuked (epitimao) the unclean spirit, saying to it, “You deaf and dumb spirit, I command you, come out of him and do not enter him again. (Mk 9:25)

Elegcho means:

1) To scrutinize or examine carefully, bring to light, expose. Jesus said that

everyone who does evil hates the light, and does not come to the light, lest his deeds should be exposed (elegcho). (Jn 3:20)

And do not participate in the unfruitful deeds of darkness, but instead even expose (elegcho) them 12 for it is disgraceful even to speak of the things which are done by them in secret. 13 But all things become visible when they are exposed (elegcho) by the light, for everything that becomes visible is light. (see notes Ephesians 5:11; 12; 13)

2) To convict, to show to be wrong. Jesus for example said

Which one of you convicts (elegcho) Me of sin? If I speak truth, why do you not believe Me? (Jn 8:46)

Elegcho was used in the Greek law courts not merely of a reply to an opposing attorney, but of a refutation of his argument. No one could prove any charges of sin against our Lord. No one could bring charges against Him in such a way as to convince Him that He was guilty. (because of course He wasn’t)

Jesus describing the role of the Holy Spirit says that

He, when He comes, will convict (elegcho) the world concerning sin and righteousness and judgment (Jn 16:8).

The Spirit’s coming would result in heightened conviction among unbelievers concerning sin, righteousness, and judgment. Before the Spirit’s coming that conviction had come mainly from the Old Testament, John the Baptist, Jesus and the disciples’ influence. Here the purpose of the Holy Spirit is not condemnation but conviction of the need for the Savior. The Spirit would not just accuse people of sin, but would bring an inescapable sense of guilt before God upon them.

Wuest adds that here

elegcho refers to those of the unsaved who are brought by the Holy Spirit into the place of salvation. The reproof spoken of is an effectual one. The rest of the unsaved hate the light and do not come to the light, lest their deeds be (exposed) proven to be evil and they be put under obligation to confess their guilt (Jn 3:20). (Wuest, K. S. Wuest’s Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Studies in the Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament: Grand Rapids: Eerdmans)

3) To convince someone of error. To refute (prove wrong by argument or evidence

4) show to be false or erroneous). To confute (to overwhelm in argument = refute conclusively). Elihu for example said

there was no one who refuted (Lxx = elegcho) Job (Job 32:12).

5) To reprove, admonish in the sense of setting right. For example Jesus said

if your brother sins, go and reprove (elegcho) him in private; if he listens to you, you have won your brother. (Mt 18:15).

6) To rebuke, reprove by chastisement. For example, the writer of Hebrews tells his readers

you have forgotten the exhortation which is addressed to you as sons, “My son, do not regard lightly the discipline of the Lord, nor faint when you are reproved (elegcho) by Him. (see note Hebrews 12:5)

Job says

Behold, how happy is the man whom God reproves (Lxx = elegcho)… (Job 5:17)

The person who has spiritual understanding will respond to a rebuke from God by acknowledging his guilt and confessing

The idea behind refute is that one present evidence so that the arguments of the opponents are beaten down and shown to have no merit. Apollos

powerfully refuted (elegcho) the Jews in public, demonstrating by the Scriptures that Jesus was the Christ. (Acts 18:28)

Barclay adds that…

Demosthenes said that (elegcho) describes the situation in which a man unanswerably demonstrates the truth of the things that he has said. Aristotle said that (elegcho) means to prove that things cannot be otherwise than as we have stated them. Christian rebuke means far more than flinging angry and condemning words at a man. It means speaking in such a way that he sees the error of his ways and accepts the truth. (Barclay, W: The Daily Study Bible Series, Rev. ed. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press)

Vincent has a lengthy discussion of the meaning of elegcho explaining that it

has several phases of meaning. In earlier classical Greek it signifies to disgrace or put to shame. Thus Ulysses, having succeeded in the trial of the bow, says to Telemachus, “the stranger who sits in thy halls disgraces (elegchei) thee not” (“Odyssey, xxi., 424). Then, to cross-examine or question, for the purpose of convincing, convicting, or refuting; to censure, accuse. So Herodotus: “In his reply Alexander became confused, and diverged from the truth, whereon the slaves interposed, confuted his statements (elegchon, cross-questioned and caught him in falsehood), and told the whole history of the crime” (1:115). The messenger in the “Antigone” of Sophocles, describing the consternation of the watchmen at finding Polynices’ body buried, says: “Evil words were bandied among them, guard accusing (elegchon) guard” (260). Of arguments, to bring to the proof; prove; prove by a chain of reasoning. It occurs in Pindar in the general sense of to conquer or surpass. “Having descended into the naked race they surpassed (elegzan) the Grecian band in speed (“Pythia,” xi., 75). (Bolding added. Vincent, M. R. Word studies in the New Testament. Vol. 2, Page 1-102)

Vincent goes on to add that

In the New Testament elegcho is found in the sense of

(1) reprove (“But when Herod the tetrarch was reproved by him on account of Herodias, his brother’s wife, and on account of all the wicked things which Herod had done” Lu 3:19; “Those who continue in sin, rebuke in the presence of all, so that the rest also may be fearful of sinning.” 1Ti 5:20, “And if your brother sins, go and reprove him in private; if he listens to you, you have won your brother.” Mt 18:15 etc.).

(2) Convince of crime or fault (“But if all prophesy, and an unbeliever or an ungifted man enters, he is convicted by all, he is called to account by all” 1Cor 14:24; “But if you show partiality, you are committing sin and are convicted by the law as transgressors.” James 2:9).

(3) To bring to light or expose by conviction (Js 3:20; Eph. 5:11, Eph. 5:13; Jn 8:46). So of the exposure of false teachers, and their refutation (Titus 1:9, 13; 2:15).

(4) To test and expose with a view to correction, and so, nearly equivalent to chasten (Heb 12:5).

The different meanings unite in the word convict. Conviction is the result of examination, testing, argument. The test exposes and demonstrates the error, and refutes it, thus convincing, convicting, and rebuking the subject of it. This conviction issues in chastening, by which the error is corrected and the erring one purified. If the conviction is rejected, it carries with it condemnation and punishment. The man is thus convicted of sin, of right, and of judgment (“And He (the Holy Spirit), when He comes, will convict (elegcho) the world concerning sin, and righteousness, and judgment” Jn16:8). In this passage the evil-doer is represented as avoiding the light which tests, that light which is the offspring of love and the consequent exposure of his error. Compare Eph. 5:13; Jn1:9–11.” (Vincent, M. R. Word studies in the New Testament. Vol. 2, Page 1-102) (Bolding added)

Contradict (483) (antilego from anti = over against, opposite, instead of, in place of + lego = speak) (gainsayers in KJV {gainsay = deny, contradict, speak against}) means literally to say against or to speak against and so to contradict (assert the contrary of, take issue with, implying open or flat denial), to speak in opposition to or to oppose (place over against something so as to provide resistance), to gainsay (declare to be untrue or invalid and implies disputing the truth of what another has said), to deny, to refute (to deny the truth or accuracy of). In secular Greek antilego was used to mean “reject a writing as spurious”. Continually contradicting an authority = obstinate.

Antilego is used 9 times in the NT (2x Lu; 1x Jn; 3x Acts; 1x Ro; 2x Titus)

The first NT use is in Luke where we read

“Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary His mother, “Behold, this Child is appointed for the fall and rise of many in Israel, and for a sign to be opposed” (Lu 2:34).

The NASB translation of “opposed” is more literal in the KJV which reads “a sign which shall be spoken against (antilego)“.

The Jewish audience cried out to Pilate that if he released Jesus he would make himself a

“king who opposes (antilego) Caesar.” (Jn 19:12)

In Acts Luke records another group of Jews who saw the crowds assembled to hear Paul and Barnabas and were

“were filled with (what filled them controlled them) jealousy, and began contradicting (antilego) the things spoken by Paul and were blaspheming.” (Acts 13:45)

Paul explaining how he come to Rome as a prisoner, and how the authorities in Jerusalem were willing to release him.

“But when the Jews objected (antilego), I was forced to appeal to Caesar; not that I had any accusation against my nation. For this reason therefore, I requested to see you and to speak with you, for I am wearing this chain for the sake of the hope of Israel. And they said to him, “We have neither received letters from Judea concerning you, nor have any of the brethren come here and reported or spoken anything bad about you. But we desire to hear from you what your views are; for concerning this sect, it is known to us that it is spoken against (antilego) everywhere.” (Acts 28:19-22)

Paul quoting God’s declaration in Isa 65:2 (Septuagint translates Hebrew there with antilego) wrote that

“as for Israel He says, “All the day long I have stretched out My hands to a disobedient (unbelieving, unyielding, self-willed) and obstinate (antilego = “a continually {present tense} speaking against”, fault-finding, contrary, contradicting) people.” (see note Romans 10:21)

In other words the reason God has temporarily set Israel aside is their stubborn rebelliousness and continual attitude of “speaking against” God and His Messiah!

In chapter 2 of Titus Paul writes

“Urge bondslaves to be subject to their own masters in everything, to be well-pleasing, not argumentative (not to continually {present tense} talk back or contradict) (antilego).”

The related noun, antilogia, is used by Jude to describe “the rebellion of Korah” (Jude 1:11)

These “talkers back” here in Titus are obstinate and are continually (present tense = habit, lifestyle) contradicting, disputing, opposing, speaking against and taking issue with biblical truth. You know who they are…these men are in every church and the overseers need to be men of the Book in order to counter their divisive arguments that seek to discredit the Book!

It is interesting that this passage on elders and overseers says nothing directly about their physical prowess, educational attainments, social status, or business acumen but instead places emphasis upon their character. It is not true, as is sometimes suggested, that the same qualities that make a man successful in business also fit him for leadership in the church! How is your church doing? Does your leadership insist on these very specific qualifications or do you select men based upon charisma, popularity, success in the world system? The emphasis must always be on the integrity of the candidate rather than on their spectacular gifts or accomplishments. No intellectual ability or oratorical prowess can make up for a lack of a virtuous and blameless life.

In contrast to 1 Timothy 3, Titus 1 contains no mention of deacons.

William MacDonald writes that

One other point should be mentioned. The picture that emerges of a godly elder is not that of a man who arranges for speakers, disburses funds, contracts for building repairs, and that’s all! The true elder is deeply and vitally involved in the spiritual life of the church by his instruction, exhortation, encouragement, rebuke, and correction.” (MacDonald, W., & Farstad, A. Believer’s Bible Commentary: Old and New Testaments. Nashville: Thomas Nelson)

Hiebert sums up this section noting that

In admitting a man to the ministry [as overseer or elder] the primary consideration must ever be the integrity of his character rather than his spectacular gifts…nothing directly is said about the work of the elders. The emphasis is rather upon the character of the men placed in charge of the work. If the church gets such ministers the work will prosper. The church must appoint such men if it is to remain true to its mission and resist the assaults of doctrinal apostasy and open ungodliness. These qualifications outline the ideal toward which each local assembly must look in the selection of its minister. Are we insisting strongly enough on these qualifications for our ministers? Do we refuse men who do not have them? In admitting a man to the ministry the primary consideration must ever be the integrity of his character rather than his spectacular gifts. ‘No intellectual power or pulpit brilliancy can atone for the lack of solid Christian virtues and a blameless life.’ (Harvey).” (Bolding added. Titus and Philemon. page 37. Moody. 1957).

Titus 1:10 For there are (3PPAI) many rebellious men, empty talkers and deceivers, especially those of the circumcision (NASB: Lockman)

Greek: Eisin (3PPAI) gar polloi [kai] anupotaktoi, mataiologoi kai phrenapatai, malista hoi ek tes peritomes,
ICB: There are many people who refuse to obey–people who talk about worthless things and lead others into the wrong way. I am talking mostly about those who say that all non-Jews must be circumcised.
KJV: For there are many unruly and vain talkers and deceivers, specially they of the circumcision:
NLT: For there are many who rebel against right teaching; they engage in useless talk and deceive people. This is especially true of those who insist on circumcision for salvation. (
NLT – Tyndale House)
Phillips: But there are many, especially among the Jews, who will not recognise authority, who talk nonsense and yet in so doing have managed to deceive men’s minds. (
Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: For there are many who are refractory, empty talkers, and deceivers of the mind, especially those of the circumcision whom it is a necessity in the nature of the case to be reducing to silence, who are of such a character as to disrupt whole families, teaching things which they ought not for the sake of base gain. (
Young’s Literal: for there are many both insubordinate, vain-talkers, and mind-deceivers–especially they of the circumcision–


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Titus – Download Lesson 1

FOR THERE ARE MANY REBELLIOUS MEN: eisin (3SPAI) gar polloi kai anupotaktoi: (Acts 20:29; Ro16:17;16:18 2 Co11:12 13 14 15 Ep4:14; 2Th2:10;11 12 1Ti1:4; 1:6 6:3; 6:4 6:5 2Ti 3:13; 4:4; Ja 1:26; 2Pe 2:1,2:2 ; 1Jn 2:18; 4:1; Rev 2:6 2:14)

for there are many both insubordinate (YLT)

who will not recognise authority (Phillips)

who are refractory (Wuest), who refuse to obey (TLB)

disorderly and unruly men (Amp)

who don’t respect authority (CEV)

who rebel against right teaching (NLT)

who refuse to obey (ICB)

there are plenty of insubordinate creatures (Moffatt)

many rebellious spirits abroad (Knox)

there are far too many who are out of control (NEB)

For there are many that spurn authority (WNT)

incorrigible (Erasmus)

For (1063) (gar) is a conjunction that introduces the logical reason overseers must refute (and be equipped to do so) those who are opposed.

Many (4183) (polus) speaks of a great number or quantity.

Rebellious (506) (anupotaktos from a = without + hupotásso = to subject or arrange [troops] in a military fashion under the command of a leader, sit under in an orderly manner) (Click word study on anupotaktos) in the active use describes those who cannot be subjected to control, disobedient, unruly, refractory, undisciplined. They refuse submission to authority. The are ungovernable for they refuse to be subject to any control. They are unruly, disregarding restraint, insubordinate, unwilling to submit, disorderly, headstrong, intractable, undisciplined, and out of control (uncontrollable).

Calvin says these men

cannot endure to be brought to obey and…throw off the yoke of subjection.

They would not submit to God’s Word or to the authority of God’s servant.

Anupotaktos was used in this same chapter describing the elder qualifications as

Titus 1:6 namely, if any man be above reproach, the husband of one wife, having children who believe, not accused of dissipation or rebellion.

There are only two other uses of anupotaktos in Scripture…

1Timothy 1:9 realizing the fact that law is not made for a righteous man, but for those who are lawless and rebellious, for the ungodly and sinners, for the unholy and profane, for those who kill their fathers or mothers, for murderers. (Comment: In this context, anupotaktos refers to unbelievers – lawless, ungodly, sinners, unholy, profane, etc).

Hebrews 2:8 Thou hast put all things in subjection under his feet.” For in subjecting all things to him, He left nothing that is not subject to him. But now we do not yet see all things subjected to him. (Comment: In this context, anupotaktos means not made subject, unsubjected and thus independent)

They are rebels who unwilling to submit to authority. Being a law unto themselves and representing the first rebel Satan, they do not recognize the authority of God’s Word or of His Spirit, much less that of His divinely called preachers and teachers. Even when their erroneous doctrine and immoral living are exposed, they are inclined to defy correction and discipline by the true church.

Beware of teachers who will not put themselves under authority. And since there were “many” it was all the more imperative for Titus to appoint elders in every city for Titus no matter how persuasive in refuting these men, would hardly have had time to deal with their growing numbers. Jude also described rebellious men who “by dreaming, defile the flesh and reject authority.” (Jude 1:8)

Paul had predicted that there would be men who would come in among the church (an “inside job”) and would not spare the flock (Acts 20:29).

EMPTY TALKERS: mataiologoi:

vain-talkers (YLT)

who talk nonsense (Phillips, NJB)

who are idle (vain, empty) and misleading talkers (Amp)

they engage in useless talk (NLT)

people who talk about worthless things (ICB)

vain jangling (Vincent)

senseless talkers (Berkley)

who impose on people with their empty arguments (Moffatt)

disobedient babblers (Conybeare)

given to idle and misleading talk (WNT)

all noise, empty parade, and no work (Clarke)

empty chatterers (McGee)

Empty talkers (3151) (mataiologos from mataios = vain, empty, profitless, fruitless, aimless = building houses on sand, chasing the wind, shooting at stars, pursuing one’s shadow + lego = talk) are vain talkers, idle talkers, foolish prattlers who speak only worthless nonsense. These folks are babblers with nothing to say. The root mataios described heathen worship (mataios is used as a word for idols in Acts 14:15, 2Ki 17:15, Jer 2:5, 8:19), specifically worship which produces no goodness of life and nothing of eternal value! He is one who utters empty, senseless things. A windbag!

Titus 1:10 is the only use of mataiologos in the Bible

The related word mataiologia means “empty prattle” and is used in for those who forsake sincere faith.

1Timothy 1:6 For some men, straying from these things, have turned aside to fruitless discussion

These people in Crete could talk glibly but all their talk was ineffective in bringing anyone one step nearer goodness. Their talk produced no spiritual benefits, and in fact robbed the hearers of the truth which led them into error. The Cynics used to say that all knowledge which is not profitable for virtue is vain. The teacher who simply provides his pupils with a forum for pleasant intellectual and speculative discussion teaches in vain. Shakespeare would describe them as “full of sound and fury, signifying nothing.”

Vincent has an unusual note writing that…

Vain jangling…illustrates the writer’s fondness for unusual compounds. Jangling is an early English word from the old French jangler, comp. jongleur a teller of tales. Hence jangling is empty chatter. So Chaucer,
“Them that jangle of love.” Shakespeare,“ This their jangling I esteem a sport.” (Mids. Night’s Dream. iii. 2) (Word studies in the New Testament 4:205-206)

Calvin adds that they

occupy themselves with nothing but useless subtleties (contrast holding fast the faithful word & sound doctrine) …because they contribute nothing to piety and the fear of God.

What these men said may have impressed their hearers, but the words lacked substance. Historically “empty talkers” were frequent in the ranks of many of the pseudo-intellectuals in the ancient world. Jeremiah described a similar breed of men in Israel writing that

The prophet who has a dream may relate his dream, but let him who has My word speak My word in truth. What does straw have in common with grain? (Jer 23:28).

They led God’s

people astray by their falsehoods and reckless boasting yet (God) did not send them or command them, nor do they furnish this people the slightest benefit... (Jer 23:32)

AND DECEIVERS: kai phrenapatai:

mind-deceivers (YLT)

it blinds people to the truth (TLB)

who delude people’s minds (JNT)

and lead others into the wrong way (ICB)

Deceiver (5423) (phrenapates from phren = mind + apatáo = lead astray, deceive) is literally “a mind deceiver” or one who leads one’s mind astray! Instead of leading men to the truth they led them away from it. The deliberately cause someone to believe something that is not true. They cause others to accept as true or valid what is false or invalid.

In the church, deceivers disguise themselves as believers and as teachers of truth. They typically disguise their deceit in ”Biblese” language, for they are familiar with all the Christian buzz words. Paul wrote to Timothy that

“evil men and impostors will proceed from bad to worse, deceiving and being deceived.” (see note 2 Timothy 3:13)

Unfortunately these men have seldom had difficulty attracting an audience. In Paul’s last known communication, he warned Timothy that the time would come when men would

“not endure sound doctrine but wanting to have their ears tickled, they (would) accumulate for themselves teachers in accordance to their own desires and (would) turn away their ears from the truth, and (would) turn aside to myths.” (see note 2 Timothy 4:3; 4:4).

In his first epistle to Timothy Paul warned that

“in later times some will fall away from the faith, paying attention to deceitful spirits and doctrines of demons.” (1Ti 4:1).

ESPECIALLY THOSE OF THE CIRCUMCISION: malista hoi ek peritomes: (Acts 15:1; 15:24; Galatians 1:6-8 ; 2:4; 3:1; 4:17-21; 5:1; 5:2 5:3 5:4; Php 3:2; 3:3)

especially those with Jewish connections (NET)

of the circumcision group (NIV)

this is especially true of those who insist on circumcision for salvation (NLT)

I am talking mostly about those who say that all non-Jews must be circumcised (ICB)

particularly those who have come over from Judaism (Moffatt)

Circumcision (4061) (peritome from perí = around + témno = cut off) (Click word study on peritome) refers literally to cutting and removal of the foreskin. but in this context refers to Jews. Paul used this identical phrase describing the party of the circumcision (Gal 2:12).

In Paul’s letter to Philippi he warned believers to

“beware of the false circumcision” (see note Philippians 3:2) identifying himself as “the true circumcision, who worship in the Spirit of God and glory in Christ Jesus and put no confidence in the flesh” (see note Philippians 3:3)

From Acts we known that Jews lived in Crete (Acts 2:11), and from Paul’s comments, a number of them were Judaizers, men who attempted to place believers back under the Law, seeking to impose OT ceremonial standards (eg, rules about foods and washings) and sometimes even rabbinical traditions, which amounts to a practical denial of the all-sufficiency of the finished work of Christ and the grace that flows from His Cross.

Luke records that

“some men came down from Judea and began teaching the brethren, “Unless you are circumcised according to the custom of Moses, you cannot be saved.” (Acts 15:1)

These men were seeking to persuade men that they needed more than Christ and more than grace in order to be saved. They were intellectualists for whom the truth of God was too simple and too good to be true.

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February 27, 2000
Smooth Talkers
READ: Titus 1:5-16

Speak the things which are proper for sound doctrine. –Titus 2:1

A man who was trying to explain the meaning of the word oratory commented with tongue in cheek, “If you say black is white, that’s foolishness. But if while you say black is white you roar like a bull, pound on the table with both fists, and race from one end of the platform to another, that’s oratory!”

We can quickly be swept off our feet by the way people express themselves, even though we have some questions about their message. Jude warned us about those whose mouths speak “great swelling words” (v.16). The masses are often moved more by style than by content.

According to Paul, the time will come when people will turn away from the truth of sound doctrine and tolerate only those who entertain and make people feel good (2 Tim. 4:3-4). So we must carefully analyze and evaluate in the light of the Scriptures everything we hear–even what is taught and proclaimed by the most eloquent of speakers. We must not allow ourselves to be swayed by mere oratory–especially in the church! We need to be sure that the Bible teachers we listen to are “speaking the truth in Christ and not lying” (1 Tim. 2:7).

Don’t let “idle talkers and deceivers” (Ti. 1:10) confuse you. Eloquence is never a substitute for truth. —Richard De Haan (Our Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved)

We must beware of speakers who
Distort and twist God’s Word;
They’ll entertain and motivate,
And call the truth absurd. –Sper

To recognize Satan’s lies, focus on God’s truth

Titus 1:11 who must (3SPAI) be silenced (PAN) because they are upsetting (3PPAI) whole families, teaching (PAPMPN) things they should (3SPAI) not teach for the sake of sordid gain. (NASB: Lockman)

Greek: ous dei (3SPAI) epistomizein, (PAN) hoitines holous oikous anatrepousin (3PPAI) didaskontes (PAPMPN) a me dei (3SPAI) aischrou kerdous charin.
Barclay: They must be muzzled. They are the kind of people who upset whole households, by teaching things which should not be taught in order to acquire a shameful gain. (Westminster Press)
KJV: Whose mouths must be stopped, who subvert whole houses, teaching things which they ought not, for filthy lucre’s sake.
Phillips: They must be silenced, for they upset the faith of whole households, teaching what they have no business to teach for the sake of what they can get. (
Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: whom it is a necessity in the nature of the case to be reducing to silence, who are of such a character as to disrupt whole families, teaching things which they ought not for the sake of dishonest gain. (
Young’s Literal: whose mouth it behoveth to stop, who whole households do overturn, teaching what things it behoveth not, for filthy lucre’s sake.

WHO MUST BE SILENCED: ous dei (3SPAI) epistomizein (PAN): (9; 3:10; Ps 63:11; 107:42; Ezek 16:63; Lu 20:40; Ro 3:19; 2Cor 11:10)

whose mouth it behoveth to stop (YLT)

whom it is a necessity in the nature of the case to be reducing to silence (Wuest)

They must be muzzled (Barclay)

whose mouths must be stopped (KJV)

Must (1163) (dei) is from deo = to bind or tie objects together, put in prison and also root of doulos, bond-servant) refers to what is not optional but needful (binding) out of intrinsic necessity or inevitability. Dei refers to inward constraint which is why it is often translated “must“. Dei describes that which is under the necessity of happening or which must necessarily take place, often with the implication of inevitability. Dei To express the sense of necessity dei is translated “one ought”, “one should”, “one has to” or “one must”.

It is necessary! These rebels proclaiming their empty talk could not be allowed to continually speak but to the contrary must be continually “muzzled”!

Be silenced (1993) (epistomizo from epí = upon, + stoma = mouth) originally meant to put something upon the mouth so as to stop it or reduce it to silence. It was used to describe placing a bit into the horse’s mouth. The idea is to close the mouth by means of applying a muzzle or a gag and is used figuratively to refer to preventing someone from talking.

Epistomizo was used to describe the putting on the mouth-piece of a flute.

These individuals should have a bit and a bridle so to speak. The noun form is used of the “stop” of a water pipe. The verb used metaphorically means to reduce to silence.

Vincent translates it as “whom it is necessary to silence.”

These men must be silenced but this rendering could be misleading, as this expression is used to refer to killing someone, which is not Paul’s intention. “You must stop them from talking” is really the idea.

Titus must continually (present tense) place something over their mouth, stopping their mouth so that they are “muzzled, bridled or gagged”. How? The best way to counter false teaching is to offer true teaching, and the only truly unanswerable teaching is the teaching of a Christ-glorifying, Word-ordered, Spirit-controlled life.

Today in the Word – The old cliché says that silence is golden. The truth of this statement, however, depends upon the nature of that silence. When false doctrine is being taught, the silence of those who know the truth leads to immeasurable damage. That’s why Paul says that it’s the false teachers who “must be silenced.” In our age of religious pluralism and ethical relativism, Christians may find it hard to confront those who disagree with the basic truths of the Christian faith. Yet if we ignore false teaching, Paul warns that it will spread from individuals to families to entire churches. We can’t afford to be silent.

BECAUSE THEY ARE UPSETTING WHOLE FAMILIES: hoitines holous oikous anatrepousin: (Mt 23:14; 2Ti 3:6)

they are ruining whole families (GWT)

They are destroying whole families (ICB)

who are of such a character as to disrupt whole families, (Wuest)

they upset the faith of whole households (Phillips)

who subvert whole houses (KJV),

who whole households do overturn (YLT),

they have already turned whole families away from the truth (NLT)

bc by it whole families are turned away from the grace of God (TLB)

Paul explains why it is absolutely necessary to stop these men from talking…it has to do with the effects of their words on entire families.

Upsetting (396) (anatrepo from ana = again + trepho = turn) literally means to overturn, and is used this way in…

John 2:15 And He made a scourge of cords, and drove them all out of the temple, with the sheep and the oxen; and He poured out the coins of the moneychangers, and overturned (anatrepo) their tables;

Anatrepo is used figuratively in Titus 1:11 and 2 and means undermine, ruin, overthrow or subvert — these effects being as the result of false teaching.

2 Timothy 2:18 men who have gone astray from the truth saying that the resurrection has already taken place, and thus they upset the faith of some. (see note)

Here in Titus 1:11, anatrepo is in the present tense indicating that this was already transpiring at the time of the writing of this letter and that it was the lifestyle or habitual activity of these men – they were continually causing trouble with regard to the faith or beliefs of others and so undermining their faith.

Anatrepo is used 4 times in the Septuagint (LXX) (Ps 118:13; Pr 10:3; 21:14; Eccl 12:6)

Whole (3650) (holos) means that the subversion was thorough and complete in extent. They were “good” at their “bad” work which is why they needed to be dealt with. The problem had affected every member of each one of these families!

Families (3624) (oikos) means a dwelling or place for habitation and by implication refers to a family (more or less related), a home, a household.


Teaching (1321) (didasko) means to provide instruction in a formal or informal setting teaching in such a way that the will of the one taught becomes conformed to the teaching taught, thus causing the student to change his or her mind saying in essence

”I won’t do it this way, but I will do it this way because I’ve learned this doctrine or this teaching.”

Doctrine determines direction of our behavior — are we gradually, inevitably being conformed to world, squeezed into it’s evil mold or are we being transformed (by exposure to the Word of Truth taught by the Spirit and Spirit filled men) to God (see note Romans 12:2)? Clearly these teachers were continually (present tense) teaching “doctrine” that was fundamentally upsetting.

FOR THE SAKE OF SORDID GAIN: aischrou kerdous charin😦7; Isa 56:10; 11 Jer 8:10; Eze 13:19; Mic 3:5 3:11; Jn 10:12; 1Ti 6:5; 2Pe 2:1, 2:2, 2:3)

for filthy lucre’s sake (KJV)

This is the shameful way they make money (GWT)

They teach them only to cheat people and make money (ICB)

Such teachers only want your money (NLT)

Sordid (150) (aischros from aischos = baseness, disgrace) refers that which is indecent, dishonorable, “ugly”, socially or morally unacceptable, shameful or base. (See related combined word aischrokerdos)

Aischros was a term especially significant in an honor-shame oriented society (a trait that did not characterize Crete!) and was used generally in reference to that which fails to meet expected moral and cultural standards.

The Cretans historically had a bad reputation for itinerate “prophets for profit” (Polybius, Livy, Plutarch).

NIDNTT records that…

The root aisch- refers originally to that which is ugly and disgraceful. aischuno (the verb form) (Homer onwards) thus meant originally to disfigure, make ugly. The verb is found in Greek literature almost exclusively in the middle or passive with the meaning to feel shame, be ashamed, or to be confounded, be disconcerted. (Brown, Colin, Editor. New International Dictionary of NT Theology. 1986. Zondervan)

Aischros is use 4 times in the NT (see below) and 6 times in the Septuagint (LXX) (Genesis 41:3-4, 19-21) and is translated in NT as: disgraceful(2), improper(1), sordid(1)

1 Corinthians 11:6 For if a woman does not cover her head, let her also have her hair cut off; but if it is disgraceful for a woman to have her hair cut off or her head shaved, let her cover her head.

1 Corinthians 14:35 And if they desire to learn anything, let them ask their own husbands at home; for it is improper for a woman to speak in church.

Ephesians 5:12 for it is disgraceful even to speak of the things which are done by them in secret.

Gain (2771) (kerdos) refers to a gain, an advantage, a profit. Kerdos is that which is gained or earned, especially the difference between an initial outlay and the subsequent amount earned.

In this verse the KJV translates it as “lucre” which is “filthy“.

Kerdos is found 3 times in the Bible…

Philippians 1:21 For to me, to live is Christ, and to die is gain. (note)

Philippians 3:7 But whatever things were gain to me, those things I have counted as loss for the sake of Christ. (note) (Comment: Kerdos describes what is in the profit column; zemia (“loss, disadvantage”) what is in the loss column)

The NLT picks up the tenor translating it as

Such teachers only want your money

The whole motivation for their actions is financial profit. Teachers only after the saint’s money is a distinct mark of false teachers for they love money and “suppose that godliness is a means of gain” (1Ti 6:5, cf 1Ti 3:3,3:8) When one looks on his teaching simply as a career designed for personal advancement and profit, he is in a perilous condition.

Titus 1:12 One of themselves, a prophet of their own, said (3SAAI) “Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, lazy gluttons.” (NASB: Lockman)

Greek: eipen (3SAAI) tis ex auton, idios auton prophetes, Kretes aei pseustai, kaka theria gasterea argai
Amplified: One of their [very] number, a prophet of their own, said, Cretans are always liars, hurtful beasts, idle and lazy gluttons.
(Amplified Bible – Lockman)
KJV: One of themselves, even a prophet of their own, said, The Cretians are alway liars, evil beasts, slow bellies.
Phillips: One of them, yes, one of their prophets, has said: “Men of Crete are always liars, evil and beastly, lazy and greedy.” (
Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: A certain one of them, a prophet of their very own, said, Cretans by nature are incessant liars, evil beasts, idle gluttons. (
Young’s Literal: A certain one of them, a prophet of their own, said — ‘Cretans! always liars, evil beasts, lazy bellies!’


Paul Apple
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John Calvin
Steven Cole
Thomas Constable
Dave Guzik
Grace Notes
Matthew Henry
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Jamieson, F, B
Hampton Keathley
Phil Newton
Ron Ritchie
A T Robertson
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Ray Stedman
C H Spurgeon
Marvin Vincent
Precept Ministries

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Titus 1:10-12, Titus 1:13-16

Titus 1:10-16 Guarding the Flock
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Titus 1:10-16 Instruction on False Teachers

Titus 1:10-16 Empty Professions-How to Wreck a Church
Titus 1:10-16 Need For Teaching Elders
Titus 1 Word Studies
Titus 1:10-16 False Teachers
Titus: Truth and Proof
Titus 1: Exposition
Titus 1 Word Studies

Titus – Download Lesson 1

ONE OF THEMSELVES A PROPHET OF THEIR OWN SAID: eipen tis ex auton idios auton prophetes:

Even one of their own prophets has said (NIV)

A certain one of them, in fact, one of their own prophets (NET)

One of their [very] number, a prophet of their own, said (Amp)

It was one of themselves, one of their own prophets, who said (NJB)

One of their own number—a Prophet who is a countryman of theirs (WNT)

Prophet (4396) (prophetes from pró = before or forth + phemí = tell) generally refers to a person inspired to proclaim or reveal divine will or purpose. In the present context these are pagan prophets not true prophets of God.

Epimenides was born in Crete at Cnossos and was a self-styled “prophet” (or poet) and was so accepted by the Cretans, Cicero and Apuleius. Although Epimenides, may have been exaggerating, his basic assessment was on target. He was a highly respected Greek intellectual and as a native of Crete, he knew the people well and was not speaking out of malice as an enemy.

Illustration – A British ambassador was reporting to Queen Elizabeth II about a head of state he had been having difficulty with. The ambassador tried to approach the subject delicately, using large words and complicated language. However, the more he spoke, the less clear he became. Finally, the exasperated queen interrupted and said, “Are you trying to tell me that the man is just bonkers?” Paul was just as blunt in his assessment of the false teachers that Titus had to refute. Quoting the philosopher Epimenides, Paul declared, “Cretans are always liars, evil brutes, lazy gluttons.” Epimenides was a religious teacher who lived in the sixth century B.C. Aristotle and Cicero referred to him as a “prophet.” Paul quotes him because Epimenides was from Crete and because of his strong criticism of his own people. Although his assessment was harsh, his opinion was widely shared. So much so, in fact, that in Greek culture, to call someone a “Cretan” was synonymous with calling that person a liar.

TODAY ALONG THE WAY – When are “sharp words” warranted in dealing with another believer? Paul’s directive to Titus provides a helpful checklist that can be used when we are considering a possible rebuke. First, how serious is the offense? These false teachers required a sharp rebuke because of the nature and impact of their teaching. Others were being seriously damaged by their false doctrine. Second, what is our motive? Is the goal redemptive? Do we want to sound off, or do we want them to be sound in the faith? (Copyright Moody Bible Institute. Used by permission. All rights reserved)

CRETANS ARE ALWAYS LIARS: kretes aei pseustai: (Ro16:18; 1Ti4:2; 2Pe2:12; 2:15 Jude 1:8-13)

Cretans were never anything but liars (NJB)

The men of Crete are ever false (BBE)

Cretans (2912) (Kres) refers to inhabitants of the island of Crete and here introduces an unfavorable generalization about Cretan character (or lack thereof).

Always (104) (aei) means these Cretans were perpetually, invariably, at any and every time incessantly prone to speak lies and the ancient world knew this even coining the verb “Cretanize” (Greek = kretizo, to lie and kretismos = Cretan behavior, lying) as a figure of speech for lying and cheating.

Liars (5583) (pseustes from pseudomai = to utter untruth and attempt to deceive by falsehood) describes Cretans as those who continually utter untruth and try to deceive their listeners with their lies. Like father like son for Jesus said that Satan

“was a murderer from the beginning, and does not stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. Whenever he speaks a lie, he speaks from his own nature; for he is a liar, and the father of lies.” (Jn 8:44)

No people ever had a worse reputation than the Cretans. The ancient world spoke of the three most evil C’s


The Cretans were famed as a drunken, insolent, untrustworthy, lying, gluttonous people.

Cretan avarice was proverbial, Polybius recording that

“The Cretans on account of their innate avarice, live in a perpetual state of private quarrel and public feud and civil strife…and you will hardly find anywhere characters more tricky and deceitful than those of Crete. Money is so highly valued among them, that its possession is not only thought to be necessary, but highly creditable; and in fact greed and avarice are so native to the soil in Crete, that they are the only people in the world among whom no stigma attaches to any sort of gain whatever.”

EVIL BEASTS: kaka theria:

evil brutes, (NIV)

“Wicked wild beasts”, savage animals (GWT)

evil and beastly (Phillips)

They are evil animals (ICB)

cruel animals (NLT)

vicious brutes (NRSV)

hurtful beasts (Amp)

dangerous animals (NJB)

evil beasts (BBE)

Evil (2556) (kakos) is an adjective that basically denotes a lack of something or not as it ought to be. It is the opposite of good (kalos, agathos). It describes one who is evil in himself and, as such, gets others in trouble. In a moral sense kakos describes these Cretans as wicked, vicious, bad in heart, conduct, and character (cf note Philippians 3:2).

Beasts (2342) (therion) refers to any living creature, excluding humans. In this verse it does however refer (figuratively) to humans as those who are wicked and possessed of a ‘bestial’ nature. These men are veritable “monsters”.

In Acts therion denotes a venomous creature, Luke recording that a

“viper (that) came out because of the heat, and fastened on (Paul’s) hand” as “the creature (therion) hanging from his hand” (Acts 28:3 28:4)

The Cretans were like wicked dangerous animals and vicious venomous vipers. Their actions and effects were like those of wild, ferocious, dangerous, savage and brutal beasts. They behaved like a wild animals, living solely at the level of their depraved sensual appetites and passions.

These men were not just “beasts” but “evil beasts”, not just “gluttons,” but “lazy gluttons.” They were celebrities, not servants and they “lived it up” at the expense of their followers, and (true to human nature), their followers loved it!

LAZY GLUTTONS: gasteres argai:

Slow bellies (KJV)

lazy people who do nothing but eat (ICB)

lazy bellies (YLT)

lazy people who do nothing but eat (NCV)

lovers of food, hating work. (BBE)

Lazy (692) (argos is from a = without + ergon = work) (Click word study on argos) literally means without work, without labor, doing nothing, as one not working the ground and so living without labor. As employed in the New Testament, argos always describes something inoperative or unserviceable.

Argos conveys several ideas depending on the context – (1) unemployed – without anything to do (Mt 20:3,6, 1Ti 5:13); (2) being unwilling to work, wanting nothing to do, shunning the labor which one ought to perform – idle, neglectful or lazy (as used here in Titus 1:12) and (3) unproductive – useless, unprofitable or worthless (Ja 2:20, 2Peter 1:8; Mt 12:36).

Argos is used 7 times in the NASB (Matt 12:36; 20:3, 6; 1 Tim 5:13; Titus 1:12; Jas 2:20; 2 Pet 1:8) and once in the Septuagint (LXX) (1 Ki 6:7)

Matthew 12:36 “And I say to you, that every careless (literally “not working”, barren, unproductive) word that men shall speak, they shall render account for it in the day of judgment. (Comment: Re-read this verse and think about the implications of what comes out of our mouths. Are our words “working” – ergon – words, words that are productive and which edify? “Not working” words include those that are flippant, irresponsible, hypocritical or in any way inappropriate. cf Eph 4:29)

Matthew 20:3 “And he went out about the third hour and saw others standing idle in the market place;

Matthew 20:6 “And about the eleventh hour he went out, and found others standing; and he said to them, ‘Why have you been standing here idle all day long?’

1 Timothy 5:13 And at the same time they (younger widows) also learn to be idle, as they go around from house to house; and not merely idle, but also gossips and busybodies, talking about things not proper to mention.

James 2:20 But are you willing to recognize, you foolish fellow, that faith without works is useless (unprofitable, worthless – carries the idea of fruitlessness – see parallel thought in note on Matthew 7:19)? (Comment: What does a fruitless life demonstrate?)

2Peter 1:8 For if these qualities are yours and are increasing, they render you neither useless (unproductive) nor unfruitful in the true knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ. (see note)

Argos is translated: careless(1), idle(4), lazy(1), useless(2).

In short, in this verse argos refers to “unemployed stomachs” who wish to eat without working to earn their living.

Paul had a parallel description in his epistle to Philippi describing those who were

“enemies of the cross of Christ, whose end is destruction, whose god is their appetite (their belly or stomach), and whose glory is in their shame, who set their minds on earthly things.” (see notes Philippians 3:19; 3:20)

Gluttons (1064) (gaster <> English = gastronomy, the art of good eating) which referred to the belly particularly the stomach and was used as a figure of speech for appetite, excessive eating and gluttony.

Cretans hated work but loved to eat and thus were generally self-indulgent, greedy, lustful and overfed.. Paul affirmed that the six-hundred-year-old testimony of Epimenides (ca 600 B.C., one of the seven “wise men” of Greece) was still true. Unredeemed flesh doesn’t change much and does not have any tendency to get better.

Callimachus wrote a poem emphasizing the tendency for Cretans to lie —

“Cretans are chronic liars, for they built a tomb, O King, and called it thine; but you die not. Your life is everlasting.”

His point was that the so-called gods don’t die so how could they have a tomb and thus the Cretans are notorious liars. Callimachus and the Cretans are of course both “liars” for a “god” named Zeus is but a myth contrived by men rejecting the only Living God.

Titus 1:13 This testimony is (3SPAI) true. For this reason reprove (2SPAM) them severely so that they may be sound (3PPAS) in the faith (NASB: Lockman)

Greek: e marturia aute estin (3SPAI) alethes. di’ en aitian elegche (2SPAM) autous apotomos, hina hugiainosin (3PPAS) en te pistei
Amplified: And this account of them is [really] true. Because it is [true], rebuke them sharply
(Amplified Bible – Lockman)
Barclay: For that very reason correct them with severity, that they may grow healthy in the faith [deal sternly, even severely with them], so that they may be sound in the faith and free from error (
Westminster Press)
Phillips: There is truth in this testimonial of theirs! Don’t hesitate to reprimand them sharply for you want them to be sound and healthy Christians, (
Phillips: Touchstone)
ICB: The words that prophet said are true. So tell those people that they are wrong. You must be strict with them. Then they will become strong in the faith (
ICB: Nelson)
KJV: This witness is true. Wherefore rebuke them sharply, that they may be sound in the faith;
Weymouth: This testimony is true. Therefore sternly denounce them, that they may be robust in their faith,
Wuest: This testimony is true, for which cause be rebuking them severely in order that they may be sound in the Faith (
Young’s Literal: this testimony is true; for which cause convict them sharply, that they may be sound in the faith,

THIS TESTIMONY IS TRUE: e marturia aute estin (3SPAI) alethes:

This witness is true (KJV)

There is truth in this testimonial of theirs! (Phillips)

And this account of them is [really] true (Amp)

and that is a true statement (NJB)

This witness is true (BBE),

The words that prophet said are true (ICB)

Testimony (3141) (marturia from martureo = to witness) means that this witness by one of the native Cretans stands as valid evidence with the authority as it comes from one who should know the truth about these people.

True (227) (alethes) means conforming to reality and thus unconcealed, manifest and in accordance with fact. As such this testimony is credible and is not to be rejected as a “witness”.

FOR THIS CAUSE REPROVE THEM SEVERELY: di en aitian elegche (2SPAM) autous apotomos: (Titus 2:15; Pr 27:5; 2 Cor 13:10; 1Ti 5:20; 2Ti 4:2)

convict them sharply (YLT)

correct them with severity (Barclay)

Don’t hesitate to reprimand them sharply (Phillips)

Because it is [true], rebuke them sharply [deal sternly, even severely with them] (Amp)

So be severe in correcting them (NJB)

So say sharp words to them (BBE)

Therefore sternly denounce them (WNT)

So tell those people that they are wrong. You must be strict with them (ICB)

So rebuke them as sternly as necessary (NLT)

So speak to the Christians there as sternly as necessary (TLB)

Reprove (1651) (elegcho from elegchos = bringing to light) (Click word study on elegcho) means to bring to the light (to reveal hidden things) with the implication that there is adequate proof of wrongdoing. To shame or disgrace and thus to rebuke another in such a way that they are compelled to see and to admit the error of their ways. To show someone that they have done something wrong and summon them to repent.

The present imperative is a command for Titus to continually reprove (see why it is so imperative in the next portion of the verse)

Titus is to reprove with such an effectual wielding of truth as to bring his hearers at least to conviction of their erroneous stand and possibly (hopefully) to the point that they are compelled to admit the error of their ways. As someone has well said pastors are to afflict the comfortable and comfort the afflicted.

In his final epistle Paul commanded Timothy whether it was convenient or not to

preach (aorist imperative) the word; be ready (aorist imperative) in season and out of season; reprove (elegcho – aorist imperative), rebuke (aorist imperative), exhort (aorist imperative), with great patience and instruction” (see note 2 Timothy 4:2) (Comment: Why was this pastoral function so critical? Paul explained “For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine; but wanting to have their ears tickled, they will accumulate for themselves teachers in accordance to their own desires and will turn away their ears from the truth, and will turn aside to myths.” – see notes 2 Timothy 4:3; 4:4)

Severely (664) (apotomos from apo = from, a preposition indicating separation or dissociation + temno = to cut as with a knife or ax) is an adverb which means literally “in a manner which cuts off”. Figuratively apotomos means abruptly, curtly, sharply, precipitously, harshly, rigorously.

TDNT has this note writing that apotomos means…

“sharply cut,” and it then has the more common derived sense of “steep,” “inaccessible,” and the transferred sense of “sharp,” “keen,” “exact,” “careful,” “strict,” and even “severe” or “pitiless.” (Kittel, G., Friedrich, G., & Bromiley, G. W. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Eerdmans)

The only other Biblical use of apotomos is also by Paul…

2Corinthians 13:10 For this reason I am writing these things while absent, in order that when present I may not use severity (apotomos) in accordance with the authority which the Lord gave me, for building up and not for tearing down.

It would be enough to “reprove” but because of the inherent danger, Paul commands Titus to do so “severely” (sternly, seriously, vigorously, sharply, curtly, pungently, incisively) so that the reproof would cut with penetrating force.

The picture is to cut as with a knife or ax, as one would do axing in a door of a house on fire with the occupants in imminent danger. It is necessary to appear rude sometimes for safety, if the house is on fire and life is in danger. As a physician I know that the most thorough, certain cure to prevent the spread of cancer is complete excision of the initial lesion. So too the surgeon of the soul cuts to achieve a cure and make what is diseased sound.

There is a temptation in the church today to not confront (ever in love) destructive, divisive error and to be “mealy mouthed” and resist calling such “spiritual cancer” what it really is.

THAT THEY MAY BE SOUND IN THE FAITH: hina hugiainosin (3PPAS) en te pistei: (Titus 2:2; Lev 19:17; Ps 119:80; 141:5; 2Cor 7:8-12; 1 Ti 4:6)

for you want them to be sound and healthy Christians (Phillips)

that they may grow healthy in the faith (Barclay)

so that they may be sound in the faith and free from error (Amp)

that they may be robust in their faith (WNT)

Then they will become strong in the faith (ICB)

to make them strong in the faith (TLB)

Who is “They” in context? Although it might at first seem to refer to the false teachers, the intended result (“sound in the faith“) would support that Paul is here referring to the members of the local body.

So that (2443) (hina) expresses purpose. Here Paul gives us the intended goal of vigorous reproof — it is not to destroy but in fact to make them “sound in the faith“.

Sound (5198) (hugiaino from hugies = healthy and source of English hygiene) (Click word study of hugiaino) means to be healthy or in good physical condition.

Hugiaino is used metaphorically here by Paul who desires that the recipients of the reproof would be free from mixture with error and deception and be in excellent “spiritual” condition.

Paul uses hugiaino (and cognates) eight times in the pastoral epistles and nowhere else. The other uses are by Luke (why might he be familiar with this word?) and one by John.

Paul knows that church leaders must major on sound doctrine because only sound doctrine will lead to holy living, here described as those who are “sound in the faith“. Personal spiritual health is always negatively affected when one takes in unhealthy or unsound doctrine. The ultimate goal of discipline should be to recover the one who is in error (Gal 6:1 2Th 3:14, 15).

Here are all 12 uses (minus the current verse Titus 1:13) of this verb hugiaino in the NT…

Luke 5:31 And Jesus answered and said to them, “It is not those who are well (hugiaino – KJV has “whole” – present tense) who need a physician, but those who are sick.

Luke 7:10 And when those who had been sent returned to the house, they found the slave in good health (hugiaino – KJV has “whole” – present tense)

Luke 15:27 “And he said to him, ‘Your brother has come, and your father has killed the fattened calf, because he has received him back safe and sound (this phrase translated by one Greek verb hugiaino – present tense)’

1 Timothy 1:10 and immoral men and homosexuals and kidnappers and liars and perjurers, and whatever else is contrary to sound (present tense) teaching,

1 Timothy 6:3 If anyone advocates a different doctrine, and does not agree with sound (present tense) words, those of our Lord Jesus Christ, and with the doctrine conforming to godliness,

2 Timothy 1:13 Retain the standard of sound (present tense) words which you have heard from me, in the faith and love which are in Christ Jesus. (see note)

2 Timothy 4:3 For the time will come when they will not endure sound (present tense) doctrine; but wanting to have their ears tickled, they will accumulate for themselves teachers in accordance to their own desires; (see note)

Titus 1:9 holding fast the faithful word which is in accordance with the teaching, that he may be able both to exhort in sound (present tense) doctrine and to refute those who contradict. (see note)

Titus 2:1 But as for you, speak the things which are fitting for sound (present tense) doctrine. (see note)

Titus 2:2 Older men are to be temperate, dignified, sensible, sound (present tense) in faith, in love, in perseverance. (see note)

3 John 1:2 Beloved, I pray that in all respects you may prosper and be in good health (present tense), just as your soul prospers.

Hugiaino is found 11 times in the Septuagint (LXX) (Gen 29:6; 37:14; 43:27-28; Ex 4:18; 1 Sa 25:6; 2 Sa 14:8; 20:9; Pr 13:13; Dan 10:19)

May be sound is present tense (this is to be their lifestyle – continued spiritual health) and subjunctive mood (mood of possibility) is used here with hina to express purpose — the purpose of the unflinchingly stern reproof.

What are they to be sound, healthy and free from error in?

The faith (4102) (pistis) in the active sense defines belief directed toward a person or thing (this is not the way pistis is used in this verse). Here Paul refers instead to the specific faith which is the content of what is believed. In other words “the faith” in this context is not referring to personal faith by which one is saved but instead refers here to the system of truth itself as taught. (for discussion of this use of “faith” click “the faith” )

The faith is that body of doctrine that was given by God through the Apostles to the church and in context often refers to the truth of the gospel. While individual teachers and preachers may disagree on the fine points of theology, there is a basic body of truth (“the faith“) to which all true Christians are committed. And so we see Jude appealing to his readers to

“contend earnestly for the faith which was once for all delivered to the saints.” (Jude 1:3)

Believers who had not yet heard of Paul’s conversion described him as

“He who once persecuted us is now preaching the faith which he once tried to destroy.” (Gal 1:23)

Paul exhorts the Corinthians to

“Be on the alert, stand firm in the faith, act like men, be strong.” (1Cor 16:13)

Titus 1:14 not paying attention (PAPMPN) to Jewish myths and commandments of men who turn away (PMPMPG) from the truth. (NASB: Lockman)

Greek: me prosechontes (PAPMPN) Ioudaikois muthois kai entolais anthropon apostrephomenon (PMPMPG) ten aletheian
Amplified: [And may show their soundness by] ceasing to give attention to Jewish myths and fables or to rules [laid down] by [mere] men who reject and turn their backs on the Truth.
Barclay: and not pay attention to Jewish fables and to rules and regulations made by men who persist in turning their backs on the truth. (
Westminster Press)
BBE: Giving no attention to the fictions of the Jews and the rules of men who have no true knowledge.
: Not giving heed to Jewish fables, and commandments of men, that turn from the truth.
Phillips: with a proper contempt for Jewish fairy tales and orders issued by men who have forsaken the path of truth. (
Phillips: Touchstone)
Weymouth: and not give attention to Jewish legends and the maxims of men who turn their backs on the truth
Wuest: not giving consent to Jewish myths and the commandments of men who are turning themselves away from the truth. (
Young’s Literal: not giving heed to Jewish fables and commands of men, turning themselves away from the truth;


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Titus 1:10-12, Titus 1:13-16

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Titus 1 Word Studies
Titus 1:10-16 False Teachers
Titus 1:15 A Searching Test
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Titus – Download Lesson 1

NOT PAYING ATTENTION TO JEWISH MYTHS: me prosechontes (PAPMPN) ioudaikois muthois: (1Ti 1:4-7; 2Ti 4:4)

Giving no attention to the fictions of the Jews (BBE)

and not pay attention to Jewish fables (Barclay)

[And may show their soundness by] ceasing to give attention to Jewish myths (Amp)

so that they stop taking notice of Jewish myths (NJB)

not accepting Jewish false stories (NCV)

They must stop listening to Jewish myths (NLT)

not giving heed to Jewish fables (NKJV)

and no longer hold on to Jewish legends (TEV)

not giving consent to Jewish myths (Wuest)

Paying attention (4337) (prosecho from pros = toward + echo = hold) is literally to hold toward and conveys the sense of giving heed to or devoting oneself to something, in this case “Jewish myths“. It means to be in a state of alert, to be concerned about, to care for or to take care

Prosecho always warns of danger and is not simply a call to notice something, but to be on guard against it because it is so harmful. The present tense calls for the Cretan believers to continually not be giving consent and attention to “Jewish myths“.

Paul wrote to Timothy, telling him not

“to pay attention to myths and endless genealogies, which give rise to mere speculation rather than furthering the administration of God which is by faith” (1Ti 1:4) and to “have nothing to do with worldly fables fit only for old women. On the other hand, discipline yourself for the purpose of godliness.” (1Timothy 4:7 see note)

Jewish (2451) (Ioudaikos) is that which is related to the Jews and refers to Israel, Judah or the Hebrews in the OT.

Myths (3454) (muthos from mu– = to close, keep secret) refers to fictional tales or legendary accounts in contrast to true accounts. Myths are manufactured stories that have no basis in fact.

Webster defines “myth” as a usually traditional story of ostensibly (to all outward appearances) historical events that serves to unfold part of the world view of a people or explain a practice, belief, or natural phenomenon.

Trench traces the evolution of the meaning of muthos writing that

“Although logos and muthos began their journey together, they gradually parted company. The antagonism between these words grew stronger and stronger until they finally stood in open opposition. This is true of words as well as of people, when one come to belong to the kingdom of light & truth and the other to the kingdom of darkness & lies.” (Trench, R. C. Synonyms of the New Testament. Hendrickson Publishers. 2000)

Paul warned Timothy that the time would come in the church when professed Christians would not want to hear true doctrine, but would

“turn away their ears from the truth, and (would) turn aside to myths” (see note 2 Timothy 4:4).

The The attractiveness and subtle deception is that there may be much logic and reasoning in myths thus accounting for Paul’s warning to stop listening to

What were “Jewish myths“? The Scripture is not clear but the implication is that even some of the Jews had abandoned their sacred Scriptures and accepted man-made substitutes. This may be a reference to the oral traditions. A century or so after the Babylonian Captivity, many rabbis began adapting gnostic Greek numerology—the practice of assigning mystical meanings to numbers—to the Hebrew language. Under one such scheme (and there were many), it was believed that the secret in the letter-numbers in Abram’s name meant that he had 318 servants. Hebrew numerology was applied not only to the Hebrew Scriptures but also to the Talmud, a collection of authorized rabbinical interpretations of Scripture, especially the Mosaic Law, that began during the time of Ezra (ca. 450 b.c.) and continued until about a.d. 500. By NT times, many rabbis and other learned Jews—especially those who lived in areas where Greek philosophy was still dominant (as it was on Crete)—mixed ideas from Hebrew and Greek numerology and added their own allegorical fancies, making the resulting interpretations more bizarre than ever.

As has been well said

When the plain sense of Scripture makes good sense, seek no other sense.

There is no need to find “deeper meanings” to the plain teachings of the Word of God. Such an approach to the Bible enables one to find anything they want to find, an art the cults “specialize” in!

COMMANDMENTS OF MEN: kai entolais anthropon: (Isa 29:13; Mt 15:9; Mk 7:7; Col 2:22)

the orders of people (NJB)

to rules [laid down] by [mere] men (Amp)

to rules and regulations made by men (Barclay)

and to human commandments (TEV)

Commandments (1785) (entole) refers to that which is commanded as officially binding. Entole is one of most common of the words meaning commandment and stresses the authority of the one commanding.

Paul warned the saints at Colossae of the danger of “commandments of men“, reminding them that since they had

“died with Christ to the elementary principles of the world, why, as if (they) were living in the world, (did they) submit yourself to decrees, such as “Do not handle, do not taste, do not touch!” (which all refer to things destined to perish with the using)– in accordance with the commandments and teachings of men? These are matters which have, to be sure, the appearance of wisdom in self-made religion and self-abasement and severe treatment of the body, but are of no value against fleshly indulgence.” (see notes Colossians 2:20; 2:21; 2:22; 2:23)

Paul had warned Timothy that

“the Spirit explicitly says that in later times some will fall away from the faith” and because they would pay “attention to deceitful spirits and doctrines of demons”, they would “forbid marriage and advocate abstaining from foods, which God has created to be gratefully shared in by those who believe and know the truth.” (1Ti 4:1, 4:2 4:3)

God spoke through the prophet Isaiah helping us understand the danger of this problem, pointing out that the Jews

“draw near with their words and honor Me with their lip service, but they remove their hearts far from Me, and their reverence for Me consists of tradition learned by rote.” (Isa 29:13)

The Lord Jesus reiterated this problem declaring that

“They worship me in vain (groundlessly, in futility, purposelessly); their teachings are but rules (commandments) taught by men.” (from NIV, Mt 15:9)

WHO TURN AWAY FROM THE TRUTH: apostrephomenon (PMPMPG) ten aletheian: (Gal4:9; 2Ti4:4; Heb12:25; 2Pe 2:22)

people who are always rejecting the truth (GWT)

of people who have turned their backs on the truth (NLT)

of people who have repudiated the truth (NAB)

who persist in turning their backs on the truth (Barclay)

which come from people who have rejected the truth. (TEV)

who are turning themselves away from the truth (Wuest)

habitually turning themselves away from the truth embodied in the gospel (Expositors)

Turn away (654) (apostrepho from apo = from, dissociation + strepho = turn) is to turn away one’s ear and so to stop listening.

These men made a willful choice, continually (present tense) turning themselves away from (middle voice = reflexive = subject initiates action and participates in effect or result) the truth, the only thing that sets men free.

Paul used this same verb apostrepho to remind Timothy

of the fact that all who are in Asia (had) turned away from him. (see note 2 Timothy 1:15)

and that

the time (would) come when they (would) not endure sound doctrine; but wanting to have their ears tickled, they (would) accumulate for themselves teachers in accordance to their own desires and (would) turn away (apostrepho) their ears from the truth, and (would be continually turned) aside (apostrepho) to myths. (see note 2 Timothy 4:3; 4:4)

Truth ( 225) (aletheia) is the quality of being in accord with what is true and is therefore characterized by, truthfulness, dependability and uprightness in thought and deed.

The way to recognize these men is to know the truth because this is the one thing they continually want nothing to do with.

Titus 1:15 To the pure, all things are pure; but to those who are defiled (RPPMPD) and unbelieving, nothing is pure, but both their mind and their conscience are defiled (3SRPI) (NASB: Lockman)

Greek: panta kathara tois katharois; tois de memiammenois (RPPMPD) kai apistois ouden katharon, alla memiantai (3SRPI) auton kai o nous kai e suneidesis.
Amplified: [And may show their soundness by] ceasing to give attention to Jewish myths and fables or to rules [laid down] by [mere] men who reject and turn their backs on the Truth.
: Unto the pure all things are pure: but unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure; but even their mind and conscience is defiled.
Phillips: Everything is wholesome to those who are themselves wholesome. But nothing is wholesome to those who are themselves unwholesome and who have no faith in God – their very minds and consciences are diseased. (
Phillips: Touchstone)
TLB: A person who is pure of heart sees goodness and purity in everything; but a person whose own heart is evil and untrusting finds evil in everything, for his dirty mind and rebellious heart color all he sees and hears.
Wuest: All things are pure to those who are pure. But to those who are defiled and unbelieving, not even one thing is pure. But both their mind and conscience are defiled. God they confess that they know but in their works they deny, being abominable and nonpersuasible, and with reference to every good work, disapproved. (
Young’s Literal: all things, indeed, are pure to the pure, and to the defiled and unstedfast is nothing pure, but of them defiled are even the mind and the conscience;

TO THE PURE ALL THINGS ARE PURE: panta men kathara tois katharois: (Lu 11:39-41; Acts 10:15; Ro 14:14; 14:20 1Cor 6:12; 6:13 10:23; 10:25 10:31 1Ti 4:3 4:4)

Everything is clean to those who are clean (GWT)

Everything is pure to those whose hearts are pure (NLT)

Everything is wholesome to those who are themselves wholesome (Phillips)

A person who is pure of heart sees goodness and purity in everything (TLB)

To the pure [in heart and conscience] all things are pure (Amp)

MacArthur sums up this passage noting that

Paul gives two divinely inspired evaluations of false teachers in the Cretan churches, evaluations that apply to false teachers in any age. First he assesses their inner lives and finds them to be corrupt. He then assesses their outer lives and finds them to be hypocritical and debauched. (MacArthur. Titus: Moody Press)

MacDonald sounds a note of caution in the interpretation of this verse and gives a well reasoned exposition, declaring that

If we take the words to the pure all things are pure out of context as a statement of absolute truth in all areas of life, we are in trouble! All things are not pure, even to those whose minds are pure. Yet people have actually used this verse to justify vile magazines, suggestive movies, and even immorality itself. Let it be clearly understood that this verse has absolutely nothing to do with things that are sinful in themselves and condemned in the Bible…This proverbial saying must be understood in the light of the context. Paul has not been speaking about matters of clear-cut morality, of things that are inherently right or wrong. Rather, he has been discussing matters of moral indifference, things that were ceremonially defiling for a Jew living under the law but that are perfectly legitimate for a Christian living under grace. The obvious example is the eating of pork. It was forbidden to God’s people in the OT, but the Lord Jesus changed all that when He said that nothing entering into a man can defile him (Mk 7:15). In saying this He pronounced all foods clean (Mk 7:19). Paul echoed this truth when he said: “But food does not commend us to God; for neither if we eat are we the better, nor if we do not eat are we the worse” (1Cor 8:8). When he says: “To the pure all things are pure,” he means that to the born again believer all foods are clean, but to those who are defiled and unbelieving nothing is pure . It is not what a person eats that defiles him but what comes out of his heart (Mk 7:20 21 22 23). If a man’s inner life is impure, if he does not have faith in the Lord Jesus, then nothing is pure to him. The observance of dietary rules won’t do a thing for him. More than anything else he needs to be converted, to receive salvation as a free gift rather than trying to earn it through rituals and legalism. The very minds and consciences of defiled people are corrupted. Their mental processes and their moral powers are defiled. It is not a question of external ceremonial defilement, but of inward corruption and depravity. (MacDonald, W., & Farstad, A. Believer’s Bible Commentary: Old and New Testaments. Nashville: Thomas Nelson)

Pure (2513) (katharos; English = catharsis = purifying, cleansing, a term used in psychology and counseling for a cleansing of the mind or emotions – a “soul cleansing” if you will; cathartic = any substance used to induce purging or to cleanse a wound or infected are in order to make it pure; Cathar = member of a medieval sect which sought the purging of all evil from its members) literally describes that which is free of dirt and thus clean. It describes that which is free from admixture or adulteration and thus is pure. From a biblical standpoint the concept of cleansing is deeply rooted in both the Old and the New Testaments. As discussed more below under the Levitical laws heavy emphasis was placed on ceremonial cleansing and thus contact with any unclean animal, substance, person, or place was strictly forbidden. By the time Christ came this preoccupation with ceremonial cleanness had unfortunately displaced true worship with many of the Jews, most notably the Pharisees. It is not surprising then that the New Testament focuses mainly on an inward cleanness (heart, conscience), rather than on an external or ceremonial cleanness.

It is also worth noting that katharos is related to the Latin castus, from which we get chaste. The related word chasten refers to discipline given in order to cleanse from wrong behavior.

Katharos is blameless, innocent, unstained with the guilt and is used to describe that which is ceremonially or ritually pure or clean (in a “Levitical sense”). For example Moses records…

Leviticus 6:11 ‘Then he shall take off his garments and put on other garments, and carry the ashes outside the camp to a clean (LXX = katharos) place.

Exodus 25:11 “And you shall overlay it (the Ark of the Covenant) with pure (LXX = katharos) gold, inside and out you shall overlay it, and you shall make a gold molding around it.

Katharos is an adjective that figuratively is used in both the OT and the NT to describe the state of one’s heart. When a person is pure in heart and mind, his or her perspective on all things is pure, and that inner purity produces outer purity. As discussed above, true purity lies not in adherence to external commandments of men but in the inner purity of the redeemed, regenerated heart.

Katharos is used to modify conscience (clean, clear) and religion (pure).

Wuest writes that katharos means…

clean, pure, free from the adhesion of anything that soils, adulterates, corrupts, and in an ethical sense, “free from corrupt desire, sin, and guilt. (Wuest, K. S. Wuest’s Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Eerdmans or Logos)

MacArthur writes that…

katharos has two shades of meaning. Some suggest that it also means unmixed or unalloyed or unadulterated or sifted or cleansed of chaff. In other words, to be pure means you have no added mixture of any foreign element. Thus, what our Lord was really saying here is, “I desire a heart that is unmixed in its devotion and motivation. Pure motives from a pure heart.”Either way, it has to do with attitudes, integrity, and singleness of heart as opposed to duplicity and double mindedness (MacArthur, J. The Only Way to Happiness: The Beatitudes. Chicago: Moody Press)

NIDNTT writes that in classical Greek…

The adjective katharos (derivation obscure, probably nothing to do with Latin castus) is common from Homer onwards, and means: (a) originally, clean, in a physical sense as opposed to rhuparos = dirty (e.g. pure, clean water, Eur. Hippolytus 209); (b) clean, in the sense of free, without things which come between, as opposed to pleres or mestos, full (e.g. en katharo, Homer Il. 23, 61); (c) ritually clean, as opposed to akathartos, unclean; (d) in a religious sense, morally pure (e.g. katharos adikias, Plato, Republic 6, 496d; katharos cheiras, Hdt., 1, 35)…

In the LXX katharos renders 18 different Heb. equivalents, but by far the most frequent is tahôr, in the sense of ritual purity. Occasionally the LXX also translates the Heb. naqî, pure, innocent (Job 4:7), and zakak, to be bright, pure, innocent (Job 15:15) by katharos. (Brown, Colin, Editor. New International Dictionary of NT Theology. 1986. Zondervan)

Richards gives a good background summary of the general terms clean and unclean noting that…

The concept of cleanness and uncleanness has roots in the ritual worship of Israel. God chose to identify some things and actions as “unclean.” Individuals in an unclean condition were not permitted to participate in Israel’s worship. But such individuals could be cleansed and again take part in worship.

The ceremonial concepts of cleanness and uncleanness were also used to clarify the concepts of sin and atonement. It is this moral aspect of the terms that the prophets emphasized. Israel was spiritually and morally unclean and had to look to the future, hoping for God to act and bring supernatural inner cleansing.

The religious leaders of Jesus’ day were blind to the emphasis of the prophets. They focused on the ritual minutia. Jesus announced that cleanness and uncleanness are matters of the heart. He did away with the old classification of clean and unclean foods. This lesson was reiterated to the young Hebrew-Christian church through Peter’s vision. God now deals with the heart: the OT symbols have been supplanted by the realities they symbolized but could never accomplish. (Richards, L O: Expository Dictionary of Bible Words: Regency)

MacArthur (commenting on Mt 5:8 “pure in heart”) explains that in secular Greek usage katharos

was often used of metals that had been refined until all impurities were removed, leaving only the pure metal. In that sense, purity means unmixed, unalloyed, unadulterated. Applied to the heart, the idea is that of pure motive-of single-mindedness, undivided devotion, spiritual integrity, and true righteousness. (MacArthur, J: Matthew 1-7 Chicago: Moody Press or Logos)

Barclay writes that…

In its positive form (katharos, an adjective meaning pure) it is commonly used in housing contracts to describe a house that is left clean and in good condition. But its most suggestive use is that katharos is used of that ceremonial cleanness which entitles a man to approach his gods. Impurity, then, is that which makes a man unfit to come before God, the soiling of life with the things which separate us from him.

Katharos “originally simply meant clean as opposed to soiled or dirty. Later it came to have certain most suggestive uses. It was used of corn that has been winnowed and cleansed of all chaff. It was used of an army which had been purified of all cowardly and undisciplined soldiers until there was nothing left but first-class fighting men. It was used of something which was without any debasing admixture. So, then, a pure heart (as in 2 Timothy 2:22 [note]) is a heart whose motives are absolutely pure and absolutely unmixed. In the heart of the Christian thinker there is no desire to show how clever he is, no desire to win a purely debating victory, no desire to show up the ignorance of his opponent. His only desire is to help and to illumine and to lead nearer to God. The Christian thinker is moved only by love of truth and love for men. (Barclay, W: The Daily Study Bible Series. The Westminster Press or Logos)

Barclay in his comments on Matthew 5:8 (note) explains…

The Greek word for pure is katharos, and it has a variety of usages, all of which have something to add to the meaning of this beatitude for the Christian life.

(i) Originally it simply meant clean, and could, for instance, be used of soiled clothes which have been washed clean.

(ii) It is regularly used for corn which has been winnowed or sifted and cleansed of all chaff. In the same way it is used of an army which has been purged of all discontented, cowardly, unwilling and inefficient soldiers, and which is a force composed solely of first-class fighting men.

(iii) It very commonly appears in company with another Greek adjective—akēratos. Akēratos can be used of milk or wine which is unadulterated with water, or of metal which has in it no tinge of alloy.

So, then, the basic meaning of katharos is unmixed, unadulterated, unalloyed. That is why this beatitude is so demanding a beatitude. It could be translated:

Blessed is the man whose motives are always entirely unmixed, for that man shall see God.

It is very seldom indeed that we do even our finest actions from absolutely unmixed motives. If we give generously and liberally to some good cause, it may be that there lingers in the depths of our hearts some contentment in basking in the sunshine of our own self-approval, some pleasure in the praise and thanks and credit which we will receive. If we do some fine thing, which demands some sacrifice from us, it may well be that we are not altogether free from the feeling that men will see something heroic in us and that we may regard ourselves as martyrs. Even a preacher at his most sincere is not altogether free from the danger of self-satisfaction in having preached a good sermon. Was it not John Bunyan who was once told by someone that he had preached well that day, and who answered sadly, “The devil already told me that as I was coming down the pulpit steps” (Barclay, W: The Daily Study Bible Series. The Westminster Press or Logos)

Here are the 27 uses of katharos in the NT translated clean(12), clear(3), innocent (1), pure(10 + 1x in KJV only)…

Matthew 5:8 (note) “Blessed are the pure in heart (see representative uses in the Septuagint below), for they shall see God. (Comment: Jesus is speaking not just of pure motives, but also of pure or holy deeds. As Puritan Thomas Watson once said “Morality can drown a man as fast as vice.” and “A vessel may sink with gold or with dung”. You can say, “I’m a very religious person and want to please God,” but if your deeds are not according to His Word and they do not reveal a real purity, it does not matter.)

Matthew 23:26 “You blind Pharisee, first clean the inside of the cup and of the dish, so that the outside of it may become clean also.

Matthew 27:59 And Joseph took the body and wrapped it in a clean linen cloth,

Luke 11:41 “But give that which is within as charity, and then all things are clean for you.

John 13:10 Jesus said to him, “He who has bathed needs only to wash his feet, but is completely clean; and you are clean, but not all of you.”
John 13:11 For He knew the one who was betraying Him; for this reason He said, “Not all of you are clean.” (Comment: Katharos is used figuratively in a moral or spiritual sense to describe that which is free of wrongdoing and is thus “pure”, “clean” or “good” in God’s sight.)

John 15:3 “You are already clean because of the word which I have spoken to you. (Comment: Thayer explains that here “the idea which Christ expresses figuratively is as follows: `he whose inmost nature has been renovated does not need radical renewal, but only to be cleansed from every several fault into which he may fall through contact with the unrenewed world”)

Acts 18:6 And when they resisted and blasphemed, he shook out his garments and said to them, “Your blood be upon your own heads! I am clean. From now on I shall go to the Gentiles.”

Acts 20:26 “Therefore I testify to you this day, that I am innocent of the blood of all men.

Romans 14:20 (note) Do not tear down the work of God for the sake of food. All things indeed are clean, but they are evil for the man who eats and gives offense. (Comment: In a Levitical sense katharos here speaks of a use of which is not forbidden or which imparts no uncleanness.)

1 Timothy 1:5 But the goal of our instruction is love from a pure heart and a good conscience and a sincere faith.

1 Timothy 3:9 but holding to the mystery of the faith with a clear conscience.

2 Timothy 1:3 (note) I thank God, whom I serve with a clear conscience the way my forefathers did, as I constantly remember you in my prayers night and day,

2 Timothy 2:22 (note) Now flee from youthful lusts, and pursue righteousness, faith, love and peace, with those who call on the Lord from a pure heart.

Titus 1:15 To the pure, all things are pure; but to those who are defiled and unbelieving, nothing is pure, but both their mind and their conscience are defiled.

Hebrews 10:22 (note) let us draw near with a sincere heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water.

James 1:27 This is pure and undefiled religion in the sight of our God and Father, to visit orphans and widows in their distress, and to keep oneself unstained by the world.

1 Peter 1:22 (note) Since you have in obedience to the truth purified your souls for a sincere love of the brethren, fervently love one another from the heart, (KJV – “see that ye love one another with a pure heart fervently” – NAS does not translate katharos).

Observe how katharos characterizes the Bride of Christ and the things of heaven. What a glorious future we have to look forward too, beloved!

Revelation 15:6 (note) and the seven angels who had the seven plagues came out of the temple, clothed in linen, clean and bright, and girded around their breasts with golden girdles.

Revelation 19:8 (note) And it was given to her to clothe herself in fine linen, bright and clean; for the fine linen is the righteous acts of the saints.

Revelation 19:14 (note) And the armies which are in heaven, clothed in fine linen, white and clean, were following Him on white horses.

Revelation 21:18 (note) And the material of the wall was jasper; and the city was pure (katharos) gold, like clear (katharos) glass.

Revelation 21:21 (note) And the twelve gates were twelve pearls; each one of the gates was a single pearl. And the street of the city was pure gold, like transparent glass.

There are 131 uses of katharos in the Septuagint (LXX) – note the concentration in books like Exodus and Leviticus: (Gen 7:2f, 8; 8:20; 20:5f; 24:8; 44:10; Exodus 25:11, 17, 23, 28f, 31, 36, 38f; 27:20; 28:13f, 22, 36; 30:3f, 35; 31:8; 37:2, 10, 29; 39:15, 30, 37; Leviticus 4:12; 6:11; 7:19; 10:10; 11:32, 36f, 47; 13:6, 13, 17, 34, 37, 39ff, 58; 14:4, 7ff, 49, 53; 15:8, 12f; 17:15; 20:25; 22:7; 24:2, 4, 6f; Num 5:17, 28; 8:7; 9:13; 18:11, 13; 19:3, 9, 12, 18f; Deut 12:15, 22; 14:11, 20; 15:22; 23:10; 1 Sam 20:26; 2 Chr 3:4f, 8; 4:16, 20f; 9:15; 13:11; Ezra 2:69; 6:20; Neh 2:20; Job 4:7, 17; 8:6; 9:30; 11:4, 13, 15; 14:4; 15:15; 16:17; 17:9; 22:25, 30; 25:5; 28:19; 33:3, 9, 26; Ps 24:4; 51:10; Prov 8:10; 12:27; 14:4; 20:9; 25:4; Eccl 9:2; Isa 1:16, 25; 14:19f; 35:8; 47:11; 65:5; Jer 4:11; Ezek 22:26; 36:25; 44:23; Dan 7:9; Hab 1:13; Zech 3:5; Mal 1:11). Here are some representative uses…

Genesis 7:2 And of the clean cattle take in to thee sevens, male and female, and of the unclean cattle pairs male and female.

Genesis 8:20 Then Noah built an altar to the LORD, and took of every clean animal and of every clean bird and offered burnt offerings on the altar.

Genesis 20:5 “Did he not himself say to me, ‘She is my sister ‘? And she herself said, ‘He is my brother.’ In the integrity (Hebrew = tom = completeness, uprightness, Lxx = katharos) of my heart (Lxx = katharos kardia = “pure heart” – also in Genesis 20:6) and the innocence of my hands I have done this.”

Psalm 24:4 He who has clean hands and a pure heart, Who has not lifted up his soul to falsehood, And has not sworn deceitfully.

Psalm 51:10 Create in me a clean heart, O God; and renew a right spirit in my inward parts.

Proverbs 20:9 Who can say, “I have cleansed my heart, I am pure from my sin “?

Isaiah 1:16 “Wash yourselves, make yourselves clean; Remove the evil of your deeds from My sight. Cease to do evil,

Malachi 1:11 “For from the rising of the sun, even to its setting, My name will be great among the nations, and in every place incense is going to be offered to My name, and a grain offering that is pure; for My name will be great among the nations,” says the LORD of hosts.

In an interesting comparative study Barclay writes that…

A word is always known by the company it keeps. There are four Greek words with which katharos is often closely associated. (a) There is alethinos, which means ‘real’, ‘genuine’, as opposed to that which is unreal and, as we would say, a fake. (b) There is amiges, which means ‘pure’, ‘unmixed’. This word is used, for instance, of pure, unalloyed pleasure. And it is used of a roll which has in it the work of only one author. (c) It is used with akratos. This is the word that describes pure wine or pure milk which has not been adulterated by water. It is pure in the sense of ‘neat’, completely unadulterated. (d) It is used with akeratos, which is the word that describes unalloyed gold, hair which has never been shorn, an unmown meadow, a virgin whose chastity has never been doubted. Now all these words basically describe something which is pure from every taint and admixture of evil. (Barclay, William: New Testament Words:. Westminster John Know Press, 1964)

John Donne (1500’s) once wrote the following on the subject of spiritual cleansing

Sleep with clean hands, either kept clean all day by integrity or washed clean at night by repentance.

Roy Hession (author of The Calvary Road) who was a leader in the great East African revival during which a dominant theme was constant cleansing from sin said

We do not lose peace with God over another person’s sin, but only over our own. Only when we are willing to be cleansed, will we have His peace.

Shakespeare’s Macbeth contains a most powerful plea for moral cleansing as Macbeth says to a physician…

Canst thou not minister to a mind diseas’d, Pluck from the memory a rooted sorrow, Raze out the written troubles of the brain, And with some sweet oblivious antidote Cleanse the stuff’d bosom of that perilous stuff Which weighs upon the heart?

To which the doctor replied…

Therein the patient
Must minister to himself (Macbeth V, iii, 22).

All (3956) (pas) means everything.

The Jews by the time of Jesus and Paul, had thousands of rules and regulations, which branded things (food, activities, etc) as unclean. When Judaism and Gnosticism joined hands even the body became unclean and the natural instincts of the body were held to be evil. The inevitable result was that long lists of sins were constantly being created. It became a sin to touch certain things. It became a sin to eat certain foods as discussed above, etc. Things which were either good in themselves or quite natural became defiled. The thought was that, by doing or not doing certain things, a person was able, by his own power and merit, to please and reconcile himself to God, which is another name for “works righteousness”.

Hiebert quoting the Scottish theologian Patrick Fairbairn says that those who trust in “works righteousness”

have a fountain of pollution which spreads itself over and infects everything about them. Their food and drink, their possessions, their employment, their comforts, their actions—all are in the reckoning of God tainted with impurity, because they are putting away from them that which alone has for the soul regenerating and cleansing efficacy.

To reiterate, it is a man’s heart which makes the difference. If he is pure in heart, all things are pure to him. If he is unclean in heart, then he makes unclean everything he thinks about or speaks about or touches.

BUT TO THOSE WHO ARE DEFILED AND UNBELIEVING NOTHING IS PURE : tois de memiasmenoiskai apistois ouden katharon (RPPMPD): (Pr 21:4; Hag 2:13; Zec 7:5; 7:6 Mt 15:18; Ro 14:20; 14:23 1Cor 11:27-29)

nothing is wholesome to those who are themselves unwholesome and who have no faith in God (Phillips)

Nothing is pure to the tainted minds of disbelievers (NEB)

but a person whose own heart is evil and untrusting finds evil in everything (TLB)

But nothing is clean to corrupt unbelievers (GWT)

But to those who are full of sin and do not believe, nothing is pure (ICB)

but to those who are corrupted and do not believe, nothing is pure (NIV)

their very minds and consciences are defiled and polluted (Amp)

but to those who have been corrupted and lack faith, nothing can be pure (NJB)

Vincent comments that…

Their moral pollution taints everything with its own quality. The purest things become suggestors and ministers of impurity.

Defiled (3392) (miaino cf miasmos = the state of being tainted, polluted, corrupted, defiled or stained by) means literally to dye with another color. Figuratively miaino describes a mind and conscience that is morally contaminated, corrupted, tainted, tinged and polluted. In a ceremonial or cultic sense it means to defile or make unclean or to be unacceptable.

Jude uses miaino in a physical and a moral sense of the one’s flesh defiled by licentiousness and so to corrupt morally.

TDNT has this note on miaino writing that it is…

a. Neutrally this word means “to paint in color.” b. Censoriously it means “to stain,” first literally, then in a cultic sense, i.e., with guilt or demonic processes. Washings are designed to remove such stains. In the OT defilement is with alien cults, dead bodies, etc., and unclean persons can stain others or holy objects. The LXX uses miaino for “to declare unclean.” Since the NT no longer thinks in cultic terms, the word is very rare….Miasmos. This is “defilement” as an action or state, first cultic, then moral. The one NT use is in 2Peter 2:10, in which it is licentious passion that defiles. (Kittel, G., Friedrich, G., & Bromiley, G. W. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Eerdmans)

BDAG notes that miaino in secular Greek is used with a…

primary sense ‘to stain’ (as of dye [Il. 4, 141]) (which ) prepares the way for the transferred sense of causing defilement through socially or cultically unacceptable behavior. It is well to keep in mind in connection with the use of this term and cognates that in the Greco-Roman world harmonious relations with the transcendent realm were understood to be dependent on careful observance of certain moral and ritual proprieties. Individuals were subordinate to interests of the community and violations of standard moral and ceremonial expectations could jeopardize the delicate balance between an entire populace and its deities. In our literature only in transferred sense

The perfect tense pictures an abiding condition or lasting state — their consciences became defiled at a point in time in the past and are still in that condition. And because of this moral pollution of their “mind and conscience”, everything they see, say and do is potentially tainted.

NIDNTT notes that in Classic Greek…

The basic meaning of miaino is to colour something by painting or staining it. In this sense the word is morally and aesthetically neutral. But from Homer on it is also used metaphorically for causing oneself or other people or places to be “stained”, i.e. unclean, with defilement that needs deliberate ritual cleansing. And in a broader moral sense miaino is used for profaning religion and justice (Aeschylus), sullying one’s father’s fame (Euripides), and polluting one’s soul (Plato). miasma, meaning the defilement resulting, and miasmos, meaning the defiled state, have a corresponding range of physical, cultic and moral meaning, while amiantos signifies freedom from defilement in both the moral and the religious sense.

In the LXX, miaino frequently renders forms of tame’, “defile”, especially in ritual contexts in Lev., Num. and Ezek. In Lev. 13:3 the meaning of miaino is declarative, “to pronounce unclean.” Since the OT does not contrast ritual and moral defilement, as modern scholarship tends to do, but rather assimilates the two, seeing both as contraventions of God’s revealed will, it is no surprise to find miaino used also of the defilement which moral and spiritual transgressions cause (e.g. Isa. 47:6; Ezek. 14:11; Hos. 6:11(10)). Disregard for God’s law in general and sexual license in particular are highlighted as sources of defilement in this latter group of passages. In the canonical LXX miasma occurs three times, in the apocryphal books miasma is found four times, miasmos twice, and amiantos five times; and each word denotes defilement in both its ritual and its moral aspects, just as miaino does.

Here are the five uses of miaino in the NT…

John 18:28 They led Jesus therefore from Caiaphas into the Praetorium, and it was early; and they themselves did not enter into the Praetorium in order that they might not be defiled, but might eat the Passover.

Titus 1:15 To the pure, all things are pure; but to those who are defiled and unbelieving, nothing is pure, but both their mind and their conscience are defiled.

Hebrews 12:15 (note) See to it that no one comes short of the grace of God; that no root of bitterness springing up causes trouble, and by it many be defiled; (Comment: How does bitterness defile? A bitter attitude has an impact on our relationship with other persons polluting not only their lives but also our own.)

Jude 1:8 Yet in the same manner these men, also by dreaming, defile the flesh, and reject authority, and revile angelic majesties.

Miaino is much more common in the Septuagint (LXX) where it is found about 103 times (Gen 34:5, 13, 27; 49:4; Ex 20:25; Lev 5:3; 11:24, 43f; 13:3, 8, 11, 14f, 20, 22, 25, 27, 30, 44, 59; 15:31f; 18:24f, 27f, 30; 20:3; 21:1, 3f, 11; 22:5, 8; Num 5:3, 13f, 19f, 27ff; 6:7, 9, 12; 19:13, 20; 35:34; Deut 21:23; 24:4; 2 Ki 23:8, 10, 13, 16; 2 Chr 29:19; 36:14; Job 31:11; Ps 79:1; 106:39; Isa 43:28; 47:6; Jer 2:7, 23, 33; 3:1f; 7:30; Ezek 4:14; 5:11; 7:22, 24; 9:7; 14:11; 18:6, 11, 15; 20:7, 18, 26, 30f, 43; 22:3f, 11; 23:7, 13, 17, 30, 38; 24:13; 36:17; 37:23; 44:25; Dan 7:26; 11:31f; Hos 5:3; 6:10; 9:4; Hag 2:13f).

Below are a few representative uses in the Septuagint (LXX). Note that in the LXX, miaino frequently renders forms of the Hebrew verb tame’ [Strong’s 02930] which means to defile, especially in ritual contexts in the books of Leviticus, Numbers and Ezekiel. Miaino is also used of the defilement which moral and spiritual transgressions cause (e.g. Isa. 47:6; Ezek. 14:11; Hos. 6:10 – see below). Israel’s blatant disregard for God’s law in general and unfaithfulness to Jehovah as manifest by sexual license in particular are highlighted as sources of defilement in these OT passages.

Genesis 34:5 Now Jacob heard that he had defiled (Hebrew = tame’ [Strong’s 02930] = to become unclean; Lxx = miaino) Dinah his daughter; but his sons were with his livestock in the field, so Jacob kept silent until they came in.

Genesis 49:4 (Jacob on his death bed speaks of Reuben as) “Uncontrolled as water, you shall not have preeminence, Because you went up to your father’s bed; Then you defiled it– he went up to my couch.

Leviticus 11:24 ‘By these, moreover, you will be made unclean: (Hebrew = tame’ [Strong’s 02930] = to become unclean; Lxx = miaino) whoever touches their carcasses becomes unclean until evening,

Leviticus 11:44 ‘For I am the LORD your God. Consecrate yourselves therefore, and be holy; for I am holy. And you shall not make yourselves unclean (Hebrew = tame’ [Strong’s 02930] = to become unclean; Lxx = miaino) with any of the swarming things that swarm on the earth.

2 Chronicles 36:14 Furthermore, all the officials of the priests and the people were very unfaithful following all the abominations of the nations; and they defiled (Hebrew = tame’ [Strong’s 02930] = to become unclean; Lxx = miaino) the house of the LORD which He had sanctified in Jerusalem.

Psalm 106:39 Thus they became unclean (Hebrew = tame’ [Strong’s 02930] = to become unclean; Lxx = miaino) in their practices, And played the harlot in their deeds.

Isaiah 47:6 “I was angry with My people, I profaned (Hebrew = chalai [Strong’s 02490] = to become unclean; Lxx = miaino) My heritage, And gave them into your hand. You did not show mercy to them, On the aged you made your yoke very heavy.

Ezekiel 14:11 in order that the house of Israel may no longer stray from Me and no longer defile (Hebrew = tame’ [Strong’s 02930] = to become unclean; Lxx = miaino) themselves with all their transgressions. Thus they will be My people, and I shall be their God,”‘ declares the Lord God.”

Hosea 6:10 In the house of Israel I have seen a horrible thing; Ephraim’s harlotry is there, Israel has defiled (Hebrew = tame’ [Strong’s 02930] = to become unclean; Lxx = miaino) itself.

Unbelieving (571) (apistos from a = without + pistos = believing, faithful) in the active sense as used in this context refers to one who disbelieves the gospel of Christ, another way of saying he or she is an unbeliever or an infidel. They are faithless.

Nothing (3762) (oudeis from ou = absolute negation + = but + heis = one) means literally “but absolutely not one”.

BUT BOTH THEIR MIND AND CONSCIENCE ARE DEFILED: alla memiantai (3SRPI) auton kai o nous kai e suneidesis: (1Co 8:7; Heb 9:14; 10:22)

for his dirty mind and rebellious heart color all he sees and hears. (TLB)

Indeed, their minds and their consciences are corrupted (GWT)

In fact, both their minds and consciences are corrupted (NIV)

Their very minds and consciences are corrupted (NRSV)

The thinking of those people has become evil and their knowledge of what is right has been ruined (ICB)

their very minds and consciences are diseased (Phillips)

both their minds and their consciences are tainted (NAB)

the corruption is both in their minds and in their consciences (NJB)

but on the contrary their very minds and consciences are polluted (WNT)

Mind and conscience are defiled – The world likes to make jokes that are filled with innuendos. There are all kinds of jokes where the plays on words are meant to put filthy pictures in your minds. But if a person is “pure” (literally, “cleansed”), then there are a lot of those kinds of jokes that are going to go right over their head because they’re not looking for the impure things. For a person who is “defiled” (literally, “stained”), just about everything in life can be turned into something filthy and dirty. When a person has exposed their mind to pornography, it begins to color how they look at everything in life. Everything becomes “impure”. There is no longer any way of looking at a person of the opposite sex without putting something perverse into the picture. When Jesus comes into your life, He gives you a new start, a new beginning. He is able to wash your mind and give you a chance to start looking at life in a pure, clean way.

Mind (3563) (nous) is the God given faculty of perceiving and understanding and is the channel through which truth reaches the heart. Paul says that believers “have the mind of Christ.” (1Cor 2:16) Although present-day believers are typically not concerned with Jewish ritual observances, the principle is still applicable. We should be more concerned about renewing our mind and focusing it on Jesus than observing a list of rules that have no biblical support.

Conscience (4893) (suneidesis from sun = with and oida = to know) (click study of conscience) is literally “a knowing with” or a co-knowledge (with oneself) which is the witness borne to one’s conduct by their conscience. Conscience is that instinctive sense of right and wrong that produces guilt when violated. Conscience is the “soul as distinguishing between what is morally good and bad, prompting to do the former and shun the latter”.

Conscience is the inner judge that accuses and condemns us when we have done wrong and approves and commends us when we have done right (see note Romans 2:14; 2:15).

As Paul implies in this verse it is possible to sin against the conscience so that it becomes “defiled”.

A defiled conscience does not convict the way it should normally and is one step closer to that seared…conscience that Paul wrote about (1Ti 4:2). This man has no moral compass to navigate the treacherous sea named “Moral Relativism” and his boat being dangerously adrift in the sea of “No Absolutes”.

Franklin P. Jones wrote that

Conscience is a small, still voice that makes minority reports.

Someone added

Conscience is also what makes a boy tell his mother before his sister does.

Christopher Morley said about conscience

Pop used to say about the Presbyterians, ‘It don’t prevent them committing all the sins there are, but it keeps them from getting any fun but of it.’

The late General Omar Bradley was more serious in commenting on conscience

The world has achieved brilliance without conscience, he conceded. “Ours is a world of nuclear giants and ethical infants.”

On the subject of conscience Martin Luther declared before the court of the Roman Empire at Worms in 1521

My conscience is captive to the Word of God. … I am more afraid of my own heart than of the pope and all his cardinals. I have within me the great pope, Self.

When a person comes to faith in Christ, his conscience becomes acutely sensitive to sin. No longer as a Christian can he sin with impunity. The story is told about an old Indian chief who was converted. Later a missionary asked him:

Chief, how are you doing spiritually? Are you experiencing victory over the devil?”

“It’s like this,” the chief replied. “I have two dogs inside me: a good dog and a bad dog. They are constantly fighting with each other.”

“Which dog wins?” asked the puzzled missionary.

“Whichever one I feed the most,” retorted the wise old man. His conscience was being shaped by the Scriptures.

Billy Graham set out the importance of a clear conscience

To have a guilty conscience is a feeling. Psychologists may define it as a guilt complex, and may seek to rationalize away the sense of guilt, but once it has been awakened through the application of the law of God, no explanation will quiet the insistent voice of conscience.

Defiled (3392) (miaino) describes a mind and conscience that is morally contaminated, corrupted, tainted, tinged and polluted. The perfect tense pictures the lasting state — their consciences became defiled at a point in time in the past and are still in that condition. And because of this moral pollution of their “mind and conscience”, everything they see, say and do is potentially tainted. Even the purest things become as

Vincent phrases it

the purest things become suggestors and ministers of impurity.

Stated another way “The mind and conscience, being defiled, defile everything they do.” So here is the point — when you see men attributing impurity to non-moral things, this action reveals their inner character – defiled, unbelieving, with defiled minds and consciences. The only hope for these men is “the blood of Christ” which alone can cleanse their defiled consciences

“from dead works to serve the living God” (Heb 9:14)

A man comes to his decisions and forms his conclusions by using two faculties. He uses intellect to think things out; he uses conscience to listen to the voice of God. But if his mind is warped in such a way that it can see the unclean thing anywhere, and if his conscience is darkened and numbed by his continual consent to evil, he loses his ability to make correct moral judgments, and is unable to make true distinctions between good and evil. If he lets impurity infect his mind, he sees all things through a mist of uncleanness. His mind soils every thought that enters into it. His imagination turns to lust every picture which it forms. His whole inner being is polluted and perverted.

Vine says that the

Conscience is the faculty which, unless defiled, hardened, and seared, enables men intuitively and without reflection to discern good and evil, commending the former and prompting to do it, condemning the latter and prompting to avoid it. Where these faculties are defiled there can be no purity.”

Gill adds that that regarding these unbelieving men

“there is nothing in them, or that belongs to them, that is pure; their mind or understanding, which conceives and judges of things, and forms notions of them; and the conscience, which draws conclusions from them, are both defiled with sin; and what then must the thoughts, the words and actions of such persons be? it matters not what they do, or abstain from, what they touch, taste, or handle, or if they do not, they sin in all they do.”

Matthew Henry adds that

“To good Christians that are sound in the faith and thereby purified all things are pure. Meats and drinks, and such things as were forbidden under the law (the observances of which some still maintain), in these there is now no such distinction, all are pure (lawful and free in their use), but to those that are defiled and unbelieving nothing is pure; things lawful and good they abuse and turn to sin; they suck poison out of that from which others draw sweetness; their mind and conscience, those leading faculties, being defiled, a taint is communicated to all they do.”


In Our Daily Bread we read a devotional entitled “A Cleansed Conscience“…

The much-loved children’s story Pinocchio is about a wooden puppet whose nose grows long when he tells a lie. His friend Jiminy Cricket chirps, “Let your conscience be your guide.” Pinocchio follows his advice, repents, and returns to Geppetto his creator, where he is given a heart of flesh and is freed from his strings.

There’s a principle in this story for God’s children. If we don’t listen to that voice deep down inside that tells us what we should and should not do, we live in bondage. But a cleansed conscience brings freedom.

Some people have no strong basis for making godly decisions. Their conscience is weak, and they can be easily swayed by the behavior of others. Then there are those whose conscience is defiled. The standard by which they measure good and evil is corrupted, polluted, and impure (Titus 1:15). But saddest of all are those who have a “seared” conscience (1 Timothy 4:2). They have resisted that inner voice for so long that they no longer hear what it has to say.

But you ask, “How can we have a cleansed conscience?” We must repent of our sin and return to our Creator. We must ask Him to conform our desires and behavior to His Word and then be careful to obey it.—David H. Roper

There is a treasure you can own
That’s greater than a crown or throne;
This treasure is a conscience clear
That brings the sweetest peace and cheer. —Isenhour

Conscience is a trustworthy compass when God’s Word is your true north.

Titus 1:16 They profess (3PPAI) to know (RAN) God, but by their deeds they deny (3PPMI) Him, being (PAPMPN) detestable and disobedient and worthless for any good deed. (NASB: Lockman)

Greek: theon homologousin (3PPAI) eidenai, (RAN) tois de ergois arnountai, (3PPMI) bdeluktoi ontes (PAPMPN) kai apeitheis kai pros pan ergon agathon adokimoi
Amplified: They profess to know God [to recognize, perceive, and be acquainted with Him], but deny and disown and renounce Him by what they do; they are detestable and loathsome, unbelieving and disobedient and disloyal and rebellious, and [they are] unfit and worthless for good work (deed or enterprise) of any kind. (Amplified Bible – Lockman)
Barclay: They profess to know God, but they deny their profession by their deeds, because they are repulsive and disobedient and useless for any good work. (Westminster Press)
BBE: They say that they have knowledge of God, while by their acts they are turning their backs on him; they are hated by all, hard-hearted, and judged to be without value for any good work.
KJV: They profess that they know God; but in works they deny him, being abominable, and disobedient, and unto every good work reprobate.
Phillips: They profess to know God, but their actual behaviour denies their profession, for they are obviously vile and rebellious and when it comes to doing any real good they are palpable frauds. (
Phillips: Touchstone)
TLB: Such persons claim they know God, but from seeing the way they act, one knows they don’t. They are rotten and disobedient, worthless so far as doing anything good is concerned
Wuest: God they confess that they know but in their works they deny, being abominable and nonpersuasible, and with reference to every good work, disapproved. (
Young’s Literal: God they profess to know, and in the works they deny Him, being abominable, and disobedient, and unto every good work disapproved.

THEY PROFESS TO KNOW GOD: theon homologousin (3PPAI) eidenai (RAN): (Nu 24:16; Is29:13; 48:1; 58:2; Ezek 33:31; Hos 8:2;8:3 Ro 2:18-24; 2Ti 3:5, 3:6, 3:7, 3:8; Jude 1:4)

“God, they confess that they know” (Wuest),

“Such persons claim they know God” (TLB), “

They profess to know God [to recognize, perceive, and be acquainted with Him]” (Amp)

“They say that they have knowledge of God (BBE)

Profess (3670) (homologeo from homo = same + lego = say) means literally to say the same and so to agree in one’s statement. These men admitted openly, freely and continually (present tense = continuous action) that they know God. The continually make a profession acknowledging God. Paul does not deny that they have a theoretical knowledge of God but he does deny that they practically know Him as their Father. They would continually confess ”Jesus is my Lord & I know Him” but their deeds give them away and reveal their heart. Like the demons (Js 2:19) these men know (possess an intellectual or head knowledge) that He is Lord but they do not really possess saving faith. Their head knowledge has resulted in no change in their heart (it is still “uncircumcised”). Their will is still their own and not His will.

Saving faith is not just intellectual knowledge or mental assent to truth but is also a firm conviction, a surrender to that truth and a conduct emanating from and concordant with that surrender. In short, faith shows itself genuine by a changed life. Only God, of course, can evaluate a person’s heart. But by the way they live, unbelievers usually betray their unbelief and such was the case with these false teachers in the church at Crete.

Matthew Henry comments that

There are many who in word and tongue profess to know God, and yet in their lives and conversations deny and reject him; their practice is a contradiction to their profession.

The Lord speaking through Isaiah described rebellious Israel as a

people draw near with their words and honor Me with their lip service, but they remove their hearts far from Me, and their reverence for Me consists of tradition learned by rote. (Isa 29:13)

And later Jehovah said

Hear this, O house of Jacob, who are named Israel and who came forth from the loins of Judah, who swear by the name of the LORD and invoke the God of Israel, but not in truth nor in righteousness. (Isa 48:1)

Know (1492) (eido) means to intuitively know Him and is a knowing that can only come as a result of God revealing Himself to us. These men claim that at some point in their life they prayed a prayer, walked an aisle, professed to receive Him as Savior. Their deeds however show that they deny God and are in “grave” danger (pun intended) of everlasting damnation in the Lake of Fire.

To think that one intuitively knows (which is the picture the verb eido conveys) God when they really don’t is deception of the highest and most tragic degree. It also produces a mindset in the deceived person that is very difficult to reason with. Why? Because they really do believe that they are saved from the wrath to come.

Jameison, Fausset and Brown write that these fakes…

make a profession acknowledging God. He does not deny their theoretical knowledge of God, but that they practically know Him” and they deny him “the opposite of the previous “profess” or “confess” Him.

BUT BY THEIR DEEDS THEY DENY HIM: tois de ergois arnountai (3PPMI): (Mt 7:21 22 23 24 25):

“but in their works they deny” (Wuest)

“but their actual behavior denies their profession” (Phillips)

“but they deny their profession by their deeds” (Barclay)

“but from seeing the way they act, one knows they don’t” (TLB)

“They claim that they know God, but their actions deny it. ” (TEV)

“but in works they deny Him” (NKJV)

“but they deny him by the way they live” (NLT)

“but deny and disown and renounce Him by what they do” (Amp)

“while by their acts they are turning their backs on him” (BBE)

Deny (720) (arneomai) (click word study) means to say one does not know about or is in any way related to God. How? Continually (deny is present tense = this speaks of one’s lifestyle, the habitual practices of one’s life) as a way of their lost lifestyle. Watch where they go, what they listen to, how they respond to external circumstances, etc. Their denial is not with their lips but by their actions. Their actions prove they are rotten fruit. In short, their actions speak louder than their words.

What do your actions or deeds “say” about who (and “Whose”) you are?

Jesus made it very clear that

whoever shall deny Me before men, I will also deny him before My Father who is in heaven. (Mt 10:33)

Our deeds “speak” very loud to those around us! Watch what you “say”! When a man has an impure mind and conscience, he may have book knowledge of God but his life denies that knowledge. He says one thing with his lips and another with his life. Purity of life can only spring from purity of thought. Their “knowledge” of God is professed in vain for it is contradicted by practice.

At the conclusion of His incredible Sermon on the Mount, Jesus called on His audience and all who profess Him with their mouth, to examine themselves using the plumbline of the following passages…

Not everyone who says to Me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter the kingdom of heaven; but he who does the will of My Father who is in heaven.
22 “Many will say to Me on that day, ‘Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in Your name, and in Your name cast out demons, and in Your name perform many miracles?’
23 “And then I will declare to them, ‘I never knew you; DEPART FROM ME, YOU WHO PRACTICE LAWLESSNESS.’
24 “Therefore everyone who hears these words of Mine, and acts upon them, may be compared to a wise man, who built his house upon the rock.
25 “And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and burst against that house; and yet it did not fall, for it had been founded upon the rock. (See notes
Matthew 7:21; 7:22; 7:23; 7:24; 7:25)

Adam Clarke writes that…

Their profession and practice were at continual variance. Full of a pretended faith, while utterly destitute of those works by which a genuine faith is accredited and proved. Dio Cassius represents Caesar as saying of his mutinous soldiers: “Having the name of Romans, while they had the manners of the Gauls.” How near are those words to the saying of the apostle!

Does your walk match your talk? Has your life truly changed as a result of your profession of faith in Christ?

Karl Rahner has written a statement that should cause all believers to carefully examine their walk —

The number one cause of atheism is Christians. Those who proclaim God with their mouths and deny him with their lifestyles are what an unbelieving world finds simply unbelievable. — Servant, January, 1995 p10.

I basically agree with Rahner but would add that the number one cause of “atheism” is that men by a volitional choice, continually (present tense, active voice)

suppress the truth in unrighteousness, because that which is known about God is evident within them (stated another way, every atheist knows there is a God! They simply choose to deny His divinity.); for God made it evident to them (the point is that no one has an excuse – certainly we are to send missionaries to the “lost” and for those lost who choose not to deny God but to seek after Him, He will find a way to get the gospel to them.) (see notes Romans 1:18; Romans 1:19)

BEING DETESTABLE: bdeluktoi ontes (PAPMPN): (Job 15:16; Rev 21:8 21:27)

“being abominable” (Wuest)

“for they are obviously vile” (Phillips)

“because they are repulsive” (Barclay)

“They are rotten” (TLB)

“They are despicable” (NLT)

“they are detestable and loathsome” (Amp)

“they are hated by all” (BBE)

Detestable (947) (bdekluktos from bdelusso = to emit a foul odor in turn from bdeo = to stink) means detestable, idolatrous, abominable and abhorrent. This word referred to heathen idols and images and so describes that which is an abomination to God. Thus the deeds of these “professors” are a stench in the nostrils of God and cause Him disgust! What a horrible thought. And they don’t even see it because of their self-deception! God abhors their deeds and finds them abominable. WOE!

The only other Scriptural use of bdekluktos is in the Septuagint (LXX) translation of Proverbs

“He who justifies the wicked, and he who condemns the righteous, Both of them alike are an abomination (bdekluktos) to the LORD” (Pr 17:15)

or as the International Children’s Bible translates it

“The Lord hates both these things: letting guilty people go free and punishing those who are not guilty.” (ICB: Nelson)

To get a sense of the hatred of God for their deeds note that bdelusso, the root word, is used in the Septuagint (LXX) several times to describe heathen idols and images. Out of 50 uses of bdelusso the following are used in the context of idolatry (Deut 7:26; 1 Ki 21:26; Hos 9:10). The related noun, bdelugma, meaning abomination is used by Jesus to describe the Antichrist in (Mt 24:15) and in the Septuagint (LXX) is also used in the context of idolatry in (Ex 8:26, Dt 7:25-26, 12:31, 17:1, 18:9, 18:12, 20:18, 27:15, 29:16, 32:16, etc). Moses speaking of Israel records

Deuteronomy 32:16 “They made Him jealous with strange gods; With abominations (bdelugma) they provoked Him to anger.

These cognate (bdelusso, bdelugma) uses of bdekluktos in the LXX give one a sense of how strong this description is of one who is a professor but is not a possessor of Christ’s righteousness!

John records that

“nothing unclean and no one who practices (present tense = habitual, as a lifestyle) abomination (bdelugma = abhorred by God) and lying, shall ever come into (Heaven), but only those whose names are written in the Lamb’s book of life.” (Rev 21:27)

Brian Bell writes that…

Paul reminds his readers of his Lord’s teachings that purification is largely a matter of the internal rather than the external. [There is nothing that enters a man from outside which can defile him; but the things which come out of him, those are the things that defile a man.] Nothing outside can corrupt one who is internally pure; but someone who is internally impure corrupts all he touches.

The false teachers were corrupt to the core (mind and conscience) Result? Even though they claimed to know God, their corrupt actions belied their true natures. “The man who says, “I know him,” but does not do what he commands is a liar, and the truth is not in him.” Their impure interiors thus rendered them externally detestable!

A defiled conscience is like a dirty window: no light can enter! Recent experiments have been made in which people were fitted with special prismatic glasses. These devices greatly distort the vision so that straight lines appeared to be curved, and sharp outlines seemed fringed with color. Within just a few days, however, the unnatural shapes, tinted edges, and inverted landscapes gradually disappeared, and the world began to be normal again, even though they still wore their optical fittings. The brain was finally able to overcome the false data that came through the prismatic lenses. In the area of the spiritual, however, the human mind does not function very well. In fact, man is a sinner whose deepest imaginations are evil, and his thought life produces a world of illusions. He thinks of himself as pure when in reality he is guilty before God.

The following words are from an old engraving on a cathedral in Labeck, Germany:

Thus speaketh Christ our Lord to us:

You call Me master and obey Me not.
You call Me light and see Me not.
You call Me the Way and walk Me not.
You call Me life and live Me not.
You call Me wise and follow Me not.
You call Me fair and love Me not.
You call Me rich and ask Me not.
You call Me eternal and seek Me not.
If I condemn thee, blame Me not.

Some people are like good watches: They’re pure gold, open-faced, always on time, dependable, quietly busy, and full of good works! (Brian Bell)

AND DISOBEDIENT (unpersuaded): kai apeitheis: (1Sa 15:22 15:24; Eph 5:6; 1Ti 1:9)

“nonpersuasible” (Wuest)

“unbelieving and disobedient and disloyal and rebellious” (Amp)

“they are outrageously rebellious” (NJB), “hard–hearted” (BBE)

“Unpersuadable, unbelieving, and consequently disobedient” (Adam Clarke)

Disobedient (545) (apeithes from a = without + peítho = persuade) (Click study of related word apeitheo) is literally one who refuses to be persuaded. Apeithes speaks of a stubborn, stiff-necked attitude of disbelief which ultimately manifests itself in disobedience. It is opposed to the main idea in the verb pisteuo translated “believe”.

Men do not avoid Christ because of insufficient facts but because of proud and unrepentant hearts. They are unwilling to be persuaded, unbelieving and disobedient. The men who profess to know God are unpersuaded by God’s clear Word. They suffer the same fate that the writer of Hebrews pronounced on the Jews who were disobedient writing

to whom did He (God) swear that they should not enter His rest, but to those who were disobedient (related word apeitheo)? And so we see that they were not able to enter because of unbelief (apistia).” (see notes Hebrews 3:18; 3:19)

In this verse we see that Hebrews equates disobedience with unbelief. You can say you “believe” but if you don’t “obey”, your belief is not saving faith. There are many voices even in evangelical circles who would not hold to this teaching, saying in essence that profession equates with possession. Paul says

Let no one deceive you with empty words, for because of these things the wrath of God comes upon the sons of disobedience. (see note Ephesians 5:6)

In the OT, the prophet Samuel gave a similar warning to Saul saying

Has the LORD as much delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices as in obeying the voice of the LORD? Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to heed than the fat of rams. (1Sam 15:22)

Such a man cannot obey the will of God. His conscience is darkened. He has made himself such that he can hardly hear the voice of God, let alone obey it. A man like that cannot be anything else but an evil influence and is therefore unfit to be an instrument in the hand of God.

AND WORTHLESS FOR ANY GOOD DEED: kai pros pan ergon agathon adokimoi: (Jer 6:30; Ro 1:28; 2Ti 3:8)

“and with reference to every good work, disapproved” (Wuest)

“and when it comes to doing any real good they are palpable frauds.” (Phillips)

“unfit for any good deed” (RSV)

“worthless so far as doing anything good is concerned” (TLB)

“not fit to do anything good” (TEV)

“disqualified for every good work” (NKJV)

“and [they are] unfit and worthless for good work (deed or enterprise) of any kind.” (Amp)

“and judged to be without value for any good work” (BBE)

“and for any good work are utterly useless” (WNT)

Worthless (96) (adokimos from a = without + dokimos = tested and thus reliable or acceptable) refers to that which is rejected after a trial or examination because it fails the test. It means to put to the test for the purpose of being approved, but failing to meet the requirements.

The basic meaning of adokimos is that of failing to meet the test or not standing the test. It describes that which does not prove itself to be such as it ought and which is therefore disapproved and useless. For example, “sterile soil” (see Hebrews 6:8 below) is unfit for fulfilling its purpose.

In short adokimos describes that which is worthless, spurious, unqualified, disqualified, corrupted, not approved,

Adokimos was commonly used of metals that were rejected by refiners because of impurities. The impure metals were discarded, and adokimos therefore came to include the ideas of worthlessness and uselessness.

In relation to God, the rejecting mind becomes a rejected mind (Ro 1:28) and thereby becomes spiritually depraved, worthless and useless. Thus Paul records

Romans 1:28 And just as they did not see fit (dokimazo) to acknowledge God any longer, God gave them over to a depraved (adokimos) mind, to do those things which are not proper. (Comment: This is literally a disapproved mind or a mind which is no mind and cannot discharge the functions of one, a mind in which the divine distinctions of right and wrong are confused and lost, so that God’s condemnation cannot but fall on it at last). (see note Romans 1:28)

Study (and ponder) the 6 other NT uses of this picturesque adjective adokimos

1Corinthians 9:27 1Corinthians 9:27 but I buffet my body and make it my slave, lest possibly, after I have preached to others, I myself should be disqualified (adokimos). (Comment: Here adokimos presents a metaphor from the Isthmian games. A contestant who failed to meet the training requirements was disqualified from engaging in the athletic contest. Thus he could not even run, much less win. Note that Paul was not speaking of being disqualified from salvation, but of being disqualified as a usable instrument, a vessel of honor, of the Lord in ministry.)

2 Corinthians 13:5 Test (peirazopresent imperative) yourselves to see if you are in the faith; examine (dokimazopresent imperative) yourselves! Or do you not recognize this about yourselves, that Jesus Christ is in you– unless indeed you fail the test (adokimos)?

2 Corinthians 13:6 But I trust that you will realize that we ourselves do not fail the test (adokimos).

2 Corinthians 13:7 Now we pray to God that you do no wrong; not that we ourselves may appear approved, but that you may do what is right, even though we should appear unapproved (adokimos).

2 Timothy 3:8 (see note) And just as Jannes and Jambres opposed Moses, so these men also oppose the truth, men of depraved mind, rejected (adokimos) as regards the faith. (see note)

Hebrews 6:8 (see note) but if it yields thorns and thistles, it is worthless (adokimos) and close to being cursed, and it ends up being burned.

There are 2 uses of adokimos in the Septuagint (LXX), Pr 25:4 and Isa 1:22.

Isaiah 1:22 Your (speaking of unfaithful Israel) silver has become dross (Septuagint = adokimos = worthless), Your drink diluted with water.

Of unbelievers, Jeremiah wrote,

They call them rejected silver, because the Lord has rejected them (Jer 6:30).

The mind that finds God worthless becomes worthless itself. It is debauched, deceived, and deserving only of God’s divine wrath. The sinful, depraved mind says to God, “Depart from us! We do not even desire the knowledge of Thy ways.”

These professor’s deeds are “proof positive” that their profession is positively preposterous and their destiny is the Lake of fire.

Adam Clarke writes that these men are…

Adulterate; like bad coin, deficient both in the weight and goodness of the metal, and without the proper sterling stamp; and consequently not current. If they did a good work, they did not do it in the spirit in which it should be performed. They had the name of God’s people; but they were counterfeit. The prophet said; Reprobate silver shall men call them.” (Titus 1)

Adokimos was used to describe a counterfeit coin that fell below the standard weight, the worthless money being called adokimos. The word also was used of counterfeits of various sorts.

Adokimos was used to describe a cowardly soldier who failed the test in the hour of battle.

Adokimos described a candidate for office who the citizens regarded as useless.

Finally a stone rejected by builders because of a flaw which made it unfit for construction, the rejected stone being clearly marked by a capital “A” (for adokimos) on it’s surface.

The ultimate test of life is usefulness, and the man whose influence is ever towards that which is unclean is of no use to God or to his fellow-men.

Instead of helping God’s work in the world, he hinders it and uselessness always invites disaster.

It is as if these unsaved men in Titus 1:16 profess Christ but in actuality deny Him have a giant “A” stamped on their head and heart. Rejected by the Master Architect and of no eternal value to Him in building His kingdom. This should break our hearts that these men and women are so deceived. Doubtless they will be among the

“Many (who) will say to Me on that day, ‘Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in Your name, and in Your name cast out demons, and in Your name perform many miracles?’ (Mt7:22) to whom He declares “I never knew you; DEPART FROM ME, YOU WHO PRACTICE LAWLESSNESS.” (see note Matthew 7:23)

The ultimate test in this life is usefulness to God and the man whose influence is ever towards that which is unclean is of no use to God or to his fellow men. Instead of helping God’s work in the world, he hinders it and uselessness always invites disaster.

For many years John Wesley professed to be a Christian and yet when he truly examined himself realized he was not “in the faith” as illustrated by this brief excerpt from his sermon entitled “The Almost Christian“:

I did go thus for many years, as many of this place can testify; using diligence to eschew all evil, and to have a conscience void of offence; redeeming the time; buying up every opportunity of doing all good to all men; constantly and carefully using all the public and all the private means of grace; endeavoring, after a steady seriousness of behavior, at all times, and in all places: and God is my record, before whom I stand, doing all this in sincerity; having a real design to serve God; a hearty desire to do his will in all things; to please him who had called me to “fight the good fight,” and to “lay hold on eternal life.” Yet my own conscience bears me witness, in the Holy Ghost, that all this time I was but almost a Christian.”

Good (18) “deed” (2041) – click for discussion of what constitutes a “good deed” in the sight of God.

Barnes comments

“that in reference to everything that was good, their conduct was such that it could not be approved, or deserved disapprobation. It was for this reason; from the character of the people of the island of Crete, and of those who claimed to be teachers there enforcing the obligation of the Mosaic law, that it was so important for Titus to exercise special care in introducing men into the ministry, and in completing the arrangements contemplated in the organization of the churches there.” (Ed note: Can the selection of elders and other church leaders be any less important in “Crete-like” America?)

And one last story… There was a very pious family. In it was a daughter and sister who seemed very devout. She was a regular attendant at church, participating in all the parts of the services — singing, praying, and the Lord’s Supper. All believed her to be genuine. Finally she was taken suddenly and seriously ill. A minister was informed of her serious illness and, at her request, came to see her. He expected to find a happy, victorious Christian; but not so. The sick young lady asked him to have a seat, saying, “I am glad you came, for I cannot bear to go out of this world a deceiver and a hypocrite without telling someone.” Then she said, “I cannot afford, for the sake of my loved ones, to tell you all of the sham, deceitfulness, and hypocrisy of my life. I have talked about religion, have professed religion, and pretended to be a Christian; but I am not and have never really loved the Lord or His service. Now I must die without any of the prospects of religion and be shut out of heaven forever.” Then the minister spoke of the mercy and grace of God. “Yes,” she replied, “but that is not for me now. I have been a worthless hypocrite, and God is justly my enemy. My character is finished. What I am, I shall be forever. The tree is even now falling, and it is too late now.” In a few minutes she went out to meet God. It will be a fearful thing to come to the end of the way and find it dark.

“if you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in your heart
that God raised Him from the dead, you shall be saved,
for with the heart man believes, resulting in righteousness,
and with the mouth he confesses, resulting in salvation.

(see notes Romans 10:9; Romans 10:10)

Titus 2:1 But as for you, speak (2PPAM) the things which are fitting (3SPAI) for sound (PAPFSD) doctrine. (NASB: Lockman)

Greek: Su de lalei (2PPAM) a prepei (3SPAI) te hugiainouse (PAPFSD) didaskalia
Amplified: BUT [as for] you, teach what is fitting and becoming to sound (wholesome) doctrine [the character and right living that identify true Christians].
(Amplified Bible – Lockman)
: But speak thou the things which become sound doctrine:
NLT: But as for you, promote the kind of living that reflects right teaching. (
NLT – Tyndale House)
Phillips: Now you must tell them the sort of character which should spring from sound teaching. (
Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: But as for you, be constantly speaking the things which are fitting to sound teaching: (
Young’s Literal: And thou — be speaking what doth become the sound teaching


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Matthew Henry
IVP Commentary
Hampton Keathley
John MacArthur
John MacArthur
Phil Newton
Ron Ritchie
A T Robertson
Gil Rugh
C H Spurgeon
Marvin Vincent
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Titus Commentary
Titus 2
Titus 2
Titus 2:1-5
Titus 2:1-5 Developing a Beautiful Body – Part 1
Titus 2:6-10 Developing a Beautiful Body – Part 2
Titus 2:11-14 How Grace Works

Titus 2:15 Understanding Biblical Authority

Titus Notes
Titus 1:9-2:1 Stand Against False Teachers
Titus 2:2-3:8 Good Deeds In Every Station Of Life
Titus 2:1,2
Titus 2
Titus 2
Titus 2

Titus 2:1-10 Instruction Concerning Various Groups

Titus 2:1
Titus 2:2-3
Titus 2:1, 15 Why Doctrine Matters
Titus 2:1-15 Need For Pastoring Elders
Titus 2 Word Studies
Titus 2:1-5 Behavior & Sound Doctrine
Titus 2: Exposition
Titus 2 Word Studies
Titus – Download Lesson 1

BUT AS FOR YOU SPEAK THE THINGS WHICH ARE FITTING FOR SOUND DOCTRINE: su lalei (2PPAM) de a prepei (3SPAI) te hugiainouse (PAPFSD) didaskalia: (Titus 2:11-14; 1:9; 3:8; 1 Ti 1:10; 6:3; 2 Ti 1:13)

Now you must tell them the sort of character which should spring from sound teaching” (Phillips)

BUT [as for] you, teach what is fitting and becoming to sound (wholesome) doctrine [the character and right living that identify true Christians].”, (Wuest)

But you must teach what agrees with sound doctrine” (TEV)

It is for you, then, to preach the behaviour which goes with healthy doctrine” (NJB)

But let your words be in agreement with true and right teaching” (BBE),

But as for you, you must speak in a manner that befits wholesome teaching” (Weymouth)

You must speak things that make the true teaching attractive” (ICB)

You (su) is a pronoun used intensively in this verse. But YOU in contradistinction to those just mentioned. Titus, and the elders he appointed (1:5), were commanded to speak about right living as well as right doctrine. They were not to deviate, capitulate, or be intimidated. Speak with your life as as the following verses explain.

Speak (2980) (laleo) is the Greek verb meaning to make a sound and then to utter words.

Vincent says that laleo is

“used of speaking, in contrast with or as a breaking of silence, voluntary or imposed. Thus the dumb man, after he was healed, spake (Mt 9:33 “And after the demon was cast out, the dumb man spoke; and the multitudes marveled, saying (lego), “Nothing like this was ever seen in Israel.”) and Zacharias, when his tongue was loosed, began to speak (Lu 1:64 “And at once his mouth was opened and his tongue loosed, and he began to speak in praise of God”) The use of the word laleo …contemplates the fact rather than the substance of speech. Hence it is used of God (Heb 1:1), the point being, not what God said, but the fact that he spake to men. On the contrary, lego refers to the matter of speech. The verb originally means to pick out, and hence to use words selected as appropriate expressions of thought, and to put such words together in orderly discourse.” (Vincent, M. R. Word studies in the New Testament).

Kenneth Wuest adds that

Laleo (was) used originally just of sounds like the chatter of birds, the prattling of children, (but was also used) of the most serious kind of speech. It takes note of the sound and the manner of speaking. One thinks of the words in the song In the Garden; “He speaks, and the sound of His voice is so sweet, the birds hush their singing.” (Wuest, K. S. Wuest’s Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Eerdmans)

As an example Wuest notes that when Jesus healed a deaf man who had difficultly speaking the multitude

“were utterly astonished, saying (lego), “He has done all things well. He makes even the deaf to hear, and the dumb to speak (laleo).” (Mk 7:37).

Wuest explains that in this verse laleo is used to emphasize

“not the matter, but the fact of speech. The crowd was not interested in what the man was saying, but in the fact that he was able to express himself articulately.” (Ibid)

Robertson says that laleo contrasts with the other NT word for speak (lego) in that laleo is

“rather an onomatopoetic word (laleo > la-la) with some emphasis on the sound and manner of speaking. The word is common in the vernacular papyri examples of social intercourse.” (Word Pictures in the New Testament)

In a similarly instructive use of laleo Luke records that after the Holy Spirit had come upon the believers at Pentecost

“they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak (laleo) with other tongues, as the Spirit was giving them utterance.” (Acts 2:4)

Trench commenting on the use of laleo in this verse writes that

“it is not what those in an ecstatic condition utter, but the fact of this new utterance itself, and quite irrespective of the matter of it, to which the sacred narrators would call our attention.”

Trench goes on to explain that if laleo refers to

“the fact of uttering articulated speech (as) the prominent notion, in lego it is the words uttered, and that these correspond to reasonable thoughts within the breast of the utterer. Thus while the parrot or talking automaton (referring to the image of the antichrist “And there was given to him to give breath to the image of the beast, that the image of the beast might even speak (laleo) and cause as many as do not worship the image of the beast to be killed.” Rev 13:15) may be said, though even they not without a certain impropriety, laleo, seeing they produce sounds imitative of human speech and in poetry, though by a still stronger figure, laleo may be ascribed to grasshoppers (Theocritus, Idyl. v. 34) and to pipes and flutes (Idyl. xx. 28, 29); yet inasmuch as there is nothing behind these sounds, they could never be (described as lego) for in lego lies the (idea of) ennoia, (relates to thought, especially to development of a perspective that provides insight and shapes attitude and actions) or thought of the mind (ennoia is used in Heb. 4:12), as the correlative to the words on the lips, and as the necessary condition of them.” (Trench, R. C. Synonyms of the New Testament. Hendrickson Publishers. 2000)

Paul uses laleo in the present imperative charging Timothy to continually speak truth that is fitting and becoming to sound doctrine.

Sound doctrine or Truth requires certain behaviors that reflect and are appropriate to it.1Ti 2:10; Eph 5:3 It is important to note that the apostle is not here focusing on the teaching and preaching of sound doctrine itself, as he does in Titus 1:9 (note). He is rather focusing on practical instruction about the things which are fitting for, that is, based on and appropriate to, the sound doctrine that already has been taught.

Fitting (4241) (prepo) has the basic meaning of being prominent or conspicuous and came to be used of a distinguishing characteristic. Thus the “distinguishing characteristic” of Titus (and all believers) should be a lifestyle that is consistent with sound doctrine. The present tense = their speech was to continually be fitting. This association between truth and behavior was emphasized by Paul in the opening verse where he wrote that it is

“the knowledge of the truth that leads to godliness” (NIV, see note Titus 1:1)

In the last section of the first chapter Paul had just described those whose lives were not in keeping with their “profession”.

Sound (5198) (hugiaino from hugiés = sound, healthy and root of English hygiene = making sick folk whole) (Click word study on hugiaino) means that which is wholesome and so that which gives health. In context refers “sound doctrine” refers to that teaching which gives spiritual health to the inner man and it implies that false doctrine produces spiritual disease and debilitation and ultimately death eternally!

The contrast is “persuasive arguments” and ”empty deception” in (see notes on Colossians 2:4, Colossians 2:8) — the result is that Colossian believers were “deluded” & ”taken captive” and ceased as a functioning body in Colossae!

Sound translates the (present tense) participle form of verb hugiaino = “continually being well and healthy”.

Paul uses a form of this word 9 times in the pastoral epistles, 5 times in Titus, and always in relation to personal righteousness and spiritual well-being, repeatedly emphasizing that sound doctrine (1Ti 1:10; see notes 2 Timothy 4:3; Titus 1:9) is the foundation for and gives rise to sound faith and sound speaking (1Ti 6:3; see notes 2 Timothy 1:13;Titus 2:2; Titus 2:8). The only weapon against Satan’s lies is God’s truth. “Thus saith the Lord!” is the end of every argument.

What “things” are “fitting for sound doctrine” in context? Right living! “Sound doctrine” is teaching that promotes spiritual health, and requires conduct consistent with the teaching professed.

A morally disordered life is diseased and stands in need of treatment by “sound doctrine”. A life based on the teaching of “sound doctrine” is wholesome, clean and healthy. Correct doctrine should produce correct behavior. This verse could be translated literally:

“The things which belong to healthy doctrine”. “Sound doctrine” has no “additives”, like “the pure (unadulterated, without deceit) milk of the word” that produces growth “in respect to salvation”. (see note 1 Peter 2:2)

We are dealing with a “body” (the body of Christ) and just as viruses and bacteria when allowed to incubate and germinate can produce devastating results on the physical body, seeds of false doctrine that germinate can wreak havoc on the spiritual health of the body of Christ, individually and corporately.

Calvin comments that Paul

“deals more in exhortations, because those intent on useless questions needed chiefly to be recalled to the study of a holy, moral life; for nothing so effectually allays men’s wandering curiosity, as the being brought to recognize those duties in which they ought to exercise themselves”

Doctrine (1319) (didaskalía from didasko from dáo = to know or teach) is either the act of teaching or the thing taught and in this use denotes doctrine or what is taught.

Doctrine is from Latin doctrina in turn from doceo = to teach.

Didaskalia is used 21 times in the NT (1x Mt; 1x Mk; 2x Ro; 1x Eph; 1x Col; 8x 1Ti; 3x 2Ti; 4x Titus)

The term doctrine in Scripture

“is broader than a simple reference to information passed on from one person to another or from one generation to the next. Christianity is a religion founded on a message of good news rooted in the significance of the life of Jesus Christ. In Scripture, then, doctrine refers to the entire body of essential theological truths that define and describe that message (1Ti 1:10; 4:16; 6:3; Titus 1:9). The message includes historical facts, such as those regarding the events of the life of Jesus Christ (1Cor 11:23). But it is deeper than biographical facts alone. As J. Gresham Machen pointed out years ago, Jesus’ death is an integral historical fact but it is not doctrine. Jesus’ death for sins (1Cor 15:3) is doctrine. (Sound) Doctrine, then, is scriptural teaching on theological truths.” (parenthesis added) (Elwell, W. A., & Elwell, W. A. The Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology . Baker Book House)

Not all doctrine is good for Jesus addressing the hypocritical Pharisees and teachers quoted Isaiah’s prophecy (Isa 29:13) in which God said to Israel that

“IN VAIN (uselessly) DO THEY WORSHIP ME, TEACHING (didache) AS DOCTRINES (didaskalia) THE PRECEPTS OF MEN.'” (Mt 15:19)

Paul gave a similar warning to the church at Colossae noting that commands like “Do not handle, do not taste, do not touch!”

(which all refer to things destined to perish with the using)– in accordance with the commandments and teachings of men? (see note Colossians 2:22)

The hypocrisy of ancient and contemporary Israel consisted of making a show of commitment to God while at the same time giving human tradition precedence over God’s Word.

Doctrine is critically important for here we see that Jesus condemned their entire worship of God which was founded on unsound, unhealthy doctrine. Jesus’ message gives a powerful warning to every church in every generation.

Doctrine is important! When the precepts of men are taught as if they were the doctrines of God, man’s wisdom is elevated above God’s-which is the very root of all sin. It was Satan’s inducing Eve to trust her own wisdom above God’s that led to the Fall and to every subsequent sin and evil in the world. It follows that every believer must “examine everything carefully; hold fast to that which is good (and) abstain from every form of evil” (1Th 5 :21-22), paying careful heed to all that is taught in their local church. Are the praise choruses doctrinally sound or do they simply sound good and make us “feel good”?

Warren Wiersbe observes that

“Far too many songs not only teach no doctrine, but many even teach false doctrines. A singer has no more right to sing a lie than a teacher has to teach a lie.” (Wiersbe, W: Bible Exposition Commentary. 1989. Victor)

Are the pulpit messages from the heart of God or are they geared to tickle the ears? Do the video series the church uses in Sunday School actually use Scripture as the foundational doctrine or do they only give token acquiescence to the Word of Truth? Is their emphasis on God’s psychology and His Words of Life or is the emphasis on humanistic psychology?

Don’t be judgmental but at least be willing to examine what is being sung, preached and taught in your church against the plumbline of Biblically sound doctrine. The vitally and integrity of the church of Jesus Christ depends on a continual “intravenous infusion” of sound doctrine.

Paul emphasizes the danger of false doctrine to the Ephesian church writing that as the result of sound teaching and equipping of the saints they would be built up, attaining unity, knowledge of Christ and spiritual maturity and would

“no longer to be children, tossed here and there by waves, and carried about by every wind of doctrine (didaskalia), by the trickery of men, by craftiness in deceitful scheming.” (see note Ephesians 4:12)

You can mark it down — If you are not anchored in sound doctrine based solely on the Word of Truth, you will be vulnerable to counterfeit truth. Spiritual leaders of the church must uncompromisingly minister the Word of Truth, sound doctrine, to the saints in the church so the saints can minister this life giving Word in a world dead it trespasses and sins. Does this description accurately describe your church?

Vance Havner had a timely word for the modern church when he remarked that

“Every Christian is commissioned, for every Christian is a missionary. It has been said that the Gospel is not merely something to come to church to hear but something to go from the church to tell—and we are all appointed to tell it. It has also been said, ‘Christianity began as a company of lay witnesses; it has become a professional pulpitism, financed by lay spectators!’ Nowadays we hire a church staff to do ‘full-time Christian work,’ and we sit in church on Sunday to watch them do it. Every Christian is meant to be in full-time Christian service … There is indeed a special ministry of pastors, teachers and evangelists—but for what? … For the perfecting of the saints for their ministry.”

This is sound doctrine!

Paul warns that

“the Spirit explicitly (distinctly and expressly) says that in later times (began at the Christ first coming and continues to His glorious return, cf note Hebrews 1:2; see note 1 Peter 1:20) some will fall away from (aphistemi stand away from source of the Greek noun apostasia – defection) the faith, paying attention (not just listening but continually paying close attention to, assenting to and finally clinging) to deceitful (deluding, seducing) spirits and doctrines (didaskalia) of demons (not doctrines about demons but inspired by them).” (1Ti 4:1)

False doctrine is not simply aberrant human teaching. Deceiving spirits, serving Satan, the deceiver and father of lies, are the invisible forces behind the latter-day departure from the faith. To sit under the teaching of doctrine that is not sound but which contradicts the truth of Scripture is to be taught by demons, and to put one’s very mind and soul in both temporal and eternal jeopardy. The ultimate aim of the demonic doctrine is to bring men and women to follow Satan, by devious, rather than open, means, using false teaching promulgated by means of the hypocrisy of liars.

Paul explains to Timothy that in warning the saints about errors that were to come (context = 1Ti 4:1-5) he would

be a good servant of Christ Jesus, constantly nourished (continually being reared on, trained) on the words of the faith and of the sound doctrine (didaskalia) which (he had) been following. (1Ti 4:6)

Paul like a good coach in sports continually emphasized the “basics”, here reminding us that continual feeding on the doctrine of Scripture is essential to the spiritual health of all Christians but especially of spiritual leaders. Only by reading the Word, studying it, memorizing it, meditating on it, and mastering its contents in real life can a pastor fulfill his mandate.

John MacArthur comments on the “nourishing” effect of sound doctrine writing that

“This quality is basic to excellence in ministry, but is sadly lacking in the church today. Much contemporary preaching is weak and produces weak churches because it reflects a lack of biblical knowledge, and a minimal commitment to the study of Scripture. For many pastors, study is an unwelcome intrusion into their schedule. It interrupts the routine of administrative tasks and meetings with which they occupy themselves. They study only enough to make a sermon, not to feed their own hearts and think deeply and carefully on divine truth. The result is impotent sermons that fall on hard hearts and have little impact.” (MacArthur, John: 1Timothy Moody Press)

In the same chapter of first Timothy, Paul again exhorted his young disciple Timothy writing that

“Until I come, (continually, as your habitual practice) give (careful, close) attention (constantly absorbed in, continually devoted) to the public reading of Scripture, to exhortation and teaching (didaskalia)” (1Ti 4:13)

Ministering the Word was not something Timothy was to do after he had done other things but was to be the most important thing he did. Timothy was to make sure the churches church leaders read the Scriptures in the meetings of the church, that exhortation including explanation and application (cf, expositional preaching), should continue to accompany the reading of the Word and that there be systematic instruction in the doctrines of the faith.

“This is the basis of Christian belief. “Experience” is quick and easily gotten, but doctrine takes time and a great deal of effort. Yet doctrinally weak believers are immature believers and the pastor who does not give attention to doctrine does not exhibit a love for his people.” (Dobson, E G, Charles Feinberg, E Hindson, Woodrow Kroll, H L. Wilmington: KJV Bible Commentary: Nelson)

For the fourth time in chapter four Paul wraps up his charge to Timothy commanding him to

Pay close attention (present imperative -continually keep paying attention) to yourself (note the order) and to your teaching (didaskalia); (make it your habit to continually stay by the side of, “stick to them and see them through” King adds that “Stickability is an essential quality for effective leadership.”) persevere in these things (those things noted in the preceding paragraph directly above); for as you do this you will insure salvation both for yourself and for those who hear you.” (1Ti 4:16)

Paul’s emphasis here is on the This emphasizes the importance of the personal life in any servant of Christ. If his life is wrong, he might be orthodox in doctrine, but it is of no avail.

Ralph Earle comments that

“No matter how straight a person may be in his doctrine or how effective he may be in his teaching, if there is a flaw in his inner or outer life, it will ruin him. This is where many ministers have failed tragically. While he is watching over others, the pastor must keep an eye on himself.”

A. W. Pink has well said that

“Service becomes a snare and an evil if it be allowed to crowd out worship and the cultivation of one’s own spiritual life.”

The “salvation” Paul refers to is not a reference to justification by works but to sanctification (see discussion of Three Tenses of Salvation), the Christian’s daily walk of faith. Timothy proved faithful to practice what he Paul had called him to do, Paul noting that he had “followed my teaching (didaskalia).” (see note 2 Timothy 3:10)

One of the best known uses of didaskalia is found in 2 Timothy Paul declaring that

“All Scripture is inspired by God and profitable (beneficial, yielding good return) for teaching, (didaskalia) for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness.” (see note 2 Timothy 3:16)

Wiersbe’s succinct summarizes this verse as

“profitable for doctrine (what is right), for reproof (what is not right), for correction (how to get right), and for instruction in righteousness (how to stay right). A Christian who studies the Bible and applies what he learns will grow in holiness and avoid many pitfalls in this world.” (Wiersbe, W: Bible Exposition Commentary. 1989. Victor)

Doctrine is indispensable to Christianity. Christianity does not exist without it. Paul warns Timothy to focus on preaching the Word for

“the time will come when they will not endure (hold themselves firm against) sound doctrine (didaskalia); but wanting to have their ears tickled (by pleasing and comfortable “doctrine”), they will accumulate (in piles) for themselves teachers in accordance to their own desires (who will tell them what they want to hear).” (see note 2 Timothy 4:3)

Paul warned that the day would come when men would make themselves the measure of who and what doctrine would be acceptable.

In Titus Paul gives as one of the key requirements for any man who would be an overseer of the church as a man who is

holding fast (continually strongly clinging or adhering to) the faithful (trustworthy, reliable) word which is in accordance with the teaching (didaskalia) that he may be able both to exhort in sound doctrine and to refute those who contradict.” (Titus 1:9 – note)

The word used to exhort and refute must be based on doctrine which is not diluted, deleted or distorted. The “teaching” in this context refers to the the spiritually healthful doctrines taught by the Lord Jesus and the apostles and which have been preserved for us in the Scriptures.

Paul tells Timothy to

“Let the elders who rule well be considered worthy of double honor, especially those who work hard at preaching and teaching. (didaskalia)” (1Ti 5:17)

Work” here refers

“to work to the point of fatigue or exhaustion. It does not stress the amount of work, but rather the effort. A man’s reward from God is proportional to the excellence of his ministry and the effort he puts into it. Excellence combined with diligence mark a man worthy of the highest honor.” (MacArthur, John: 1Timothy Moody Press)

Paul writes to the Roman church reminding them that

“whatever was written in earlier times was written for our instruction (didaskalia), that through perseverance and the encouragement of the Scriptures we might have hope.” (see note Romans 15:4)

Referring to the Old Testament, Paul emphasizes its importance as “didaskalia” for it contains invaluable doctrine for all ages. And so as we encounter temptations, tribulations, troubles, etc, the Old Testament teaches us to be steadfast, and imparts comfort to our soul. Then instead of sinking under the waves, we are sustained by the hope that the Lord will see us through. The Old Testament truths provide motivation for us to “hang in there” and be encouraged in the midst of the storm as we seek to remain faithful to do God’s will. The Old Testament Scriptures give us hope because in them we see God’s approval of those Old Testament saints who persevered faithfully in spite of opposition and frustration.

As J Vernon McGee so aptly puts it

“You won’t find any hope in the daily newspaper. You won’t find any hope in modern literature. Look at any field and see if you can find any hope. There is none whatsoever. It is dark and dismal when you look out at this world today. My friend, the only place you can find real hope is in the Word of God.” (McGee, J V: Thru the Bible Commentary: Thomas Nelson)

Here in Titus 2:1 as well as in his first epistle to Timothy, Paul clearly associates proper belief (sound doctrine) with right behavior, writing to bond slaves:

“Let all who are under the yoke as slaves regard their own masters as worthy of all honor so that the name of God and our doctrine (didaskalia) may not be spoken against.” (1 Ti 6:1).

The respected Lutheran commentator, R. C. H. Lenski writes

“If a Christian slave dishonored his master in any way by disobedience, by acting disrespectfully, by speaking shamefully of his master, the worst consequence would not be the beating he would receive but the curses he would cause his master to hurl at this miserable slave’s God, his religion, and the teaching he had embraced: “So that is what this new religion teaches its converts!” Instead of bringing honor to the true God and the gospel of his high and holy Name, as every Christian should be anxious to do, this slave would bring about the very opposite, to the devil’s delight.” (The Interpretation of St. Paul’s Epistles to the Colossians, to the Thessalonians, to Timothy, to Titus, and to Philemon: Augsburg, 1964, p694–95)

The history of the early church reveals that Christian slaves generally commanded a higher price on the slave market than unbelievers. If a master knew that a certain slave on the auction block was a Christian, he would generally be willing to pay more for that slave, since he knew that the slave would serve him faithfully and well. This is high tribute to the Christian faith and the soundness of the doctrine that is according to the glorious gospel! If you were put on the “slave market” so to speak would you “command a higher price?”

Are my actions before my family, in school and at the workplace giving clear testimony to the reality of Christ in me the hope of glory and His power to live as more than a conqueror?

Paul shows the clear connection between sound doctrine and one conduct writing that

“If anyone advocates a different doctrine (heterodidaskaleo), and does not agree with sound (health giving) words, those of our Lord Jesus Christ, and with the doctrine (didaskalia) conforming to (and leading to) godliness.” (1Ti 6:3)

I like the NLT paraphrase which explains that

“the sound, wholesome teachings of the Lord Jesus Christ…are the foundation for a godly life.”

Note that what you believe does influence how you behave! Be sure you are “eating” healthy spiritual food, the pure milk of God’s Word if you desire to be spiritually healthy and vigorous. Doctrine not based on Scripture will always result in an unholy life. Instead of godliness, false teachers will be marked by sin.

Titus 2:2 Older men are to be temperate, dignified, sensible, sound in faith, in love, in perseverance (NASB: Lockman)

Greek: presbutas nephalious einai, (PAN) semnous, sophronas, hugiainontas (PAPMPA) te pistei, te agape, te hupomone
Amplified: Urge the older men to be temperate, venerable (serious), sensible, self-controlled, and sound in the faith, in the love, and in the steadfastness and patience [of Christ]. (Amplified Bible – Lockman)
KJV: That the aged men be sober, grave, temperate, sound in faith, in charity, in patience.
NLT: Teach the older men to exercise self-control, to be worthy of respect, and to live wisely. They must have strong faith and be filled with love and patience. (
NLT – Tyndale House)
Phillips: The old men should be temperate, serious, wise – spiritually healthy through their faith and love and patience. (
Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: that aged men be temperate [in the use of wine], venerable, self-controlled, sound in the Faith, in the love, in the patience; (
Young’s Literal: aged men to be temperate, grave, sober, sound in the faith, in the love, in the endurance;

OLDER MEN ARE TO BE TEMPERATE: presbutas nephalious einai, (PAN): (Lev 19:32; Job 12:12; Ps 92:14; Pr 16:31; Isa 65:20) (1Cor 15:34; 1 Th 5:6,8; 1Ti 3:2,11; 1Pet 1:13; 4:7; 5:8)

old men are to be simple in their tastes (BBE)

the elder men be watchful (Geneva)

Tell older men to be sober (GWT)

Older men should be reserved (NJB)

Urge the older men to be temperate, venerable (serious), sensible (Amp)

Older men (4246) (presbutes related to the comparative presbuteros = an older person) means an aged man and in Greek literature sometimes was used of men as young as 50. Presbutes here is not to be understood as holding an ecclesiastical position but as a man older in years.

A church is blessed when it has believers who can say with Paul,

“I have fought the good fight, I have finished the course, I have kept the faith” (see note 2 Timothy 4:7)

and who can pray,

“O God, Thou hast taught me from my youth; and I still declare Thy wondrous deeds” (Ps 71:17). (See Spurgeon’s Comment)

Moses was 80 years old when God called him to lead Israel out of bondage in Egypt and to the land of promise and his advanced age did not excuse him from the Lord’s work. At the age of 83—after having traveled some 250,000 miles on horseback, preached more than 40,000 sermons, and produced some 200 books and pamphlets—John Wesley regretted that he was unable to read and write for more than 15 hours a day without his eyes becoming too tired to work. After his 86th birthday, he admitted to an increasing tendency to lie in bed until 5:30 in the morning!

Temperate (3524) (nephalios from nepho = to be sober, free of intoxicants, wineless and thus sober in judgment) describes a man who is watchful to be free from the intoxicating effects of the world, flesh and devil and thus remains circumspect, sober, and vigilant. Such an attitude is to be his lifestyle. Old men should have learned what are and what are not, godly pleasures and that the passing pleasures of sin and of self-indulgence cost far more than they are worth. A temperate person avoids excess, extravagance and over-indulgence of appetites and passions.

The temperate older man is able to discern more clearly which things are of the greatest importance and value. He uses his time, his money, and his energy more carefully and selectively than when he was younger and less mature. His priorities are in the right order, and he is satisfied with fewer and simpler things.

Spurgeon comments that…

Among the heathen, old men often gave themselves up to drunkenness and gluttony; so now, this is the teaching that is to be given to aged Christian men. They need faith, love, and patience, as well as the virtues of sobriety, gravity, and temperance. The infirmities of old age often create petulance, so the grace of God is to make the venerable Christian to be full of faith, love, and patience.

DIGNIFIED: semnous: (7; 1 Ti 3:4,8,11; Php 4:8)

“worthy of respect” (NIV)

Dignified (4586) (semnos) (see also word study on related word semnotes) means honorable, august (marked by majestic dignity or grandeur), venerable (stresses the impressiveness and dignity of great age), reverent or behaving with reverent propriety. It refers to the character that evokes special respect.

Semnos is used 4 times in the NT and is translated dignified(2), honorable(1), men of dignity(1)…

Philippians 4:8 Finally, brethren, whatever is true, whatever is honorable, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is of good repute, if there is any excellence and if anything worthy of praise, let your mind dwell on these things. (note)

1 Timothy 3:8 Deacons likewise must be men of dignity, not double-tongued, or addicted to much wine or fond of sordid gain,

1 Timothy 3:11 Women must likewise be dignified, not malicious gossips, but temperate, faithful in all things.

The behavior of these older men is serious in the right way. It does not describe the demeanor of a person who is a gloomy killjoy, but the conduct of the man who knows that he lives in the light of eternity, and that before very long he will leave the fallen race of men for the glorious presence of God. The dignified person is never frivolous, trivial, or superficial. He does not laugh at immorality, vulgarity, or anything else that is sinful and ungodly. Nor does he laugh at that which is tragic or at the expense of others. These older men have learned the value of time and opportunity. They are better than younger men at accepting and comprehending their own mortality, the imperfections of this present world, and the inability of material things to bring true joy and lasting, deep satisfaction. They have seen utopian ideas fail and have learned how short-lived and disappointing euphoric emotional experiences can be.

Matthew Henry writes that

“levity is unbecoming in any, but especially in the aged; they should be composed and stayed, grave in habit, speech, and behaviour; gaudiness in dress, levity and vanity in the behaviour, how unbeseeming in their years!”

SENSIBLE: sophronas: (Titus 1:8; Acts 24:25; 1Cor 9:25; Gal 5:23; 2 Pe 1:6; Mk 5:15; Lu 8:35; Ro 12:3; 2Cor 5:13; 1Pet 4:7)

Sensible (4998) (sophron which Vine says derives from a combination of sozo = save + phren = mind and see note in next paragraph) (Click word study on sophron) means acting like one with a “saved mind” curbing one’s desires and impulses and so describes the man who is self-controlled, self restrained and discreet. This man’s mind has everything under control (of the Holy Spirit).

Over the years the senior men must have acquired that cleansing, saving strength of mind which has learned to govern every instinct and passion until each has its proper place and no more. They would have the discernment, discretion, and judgment that comes from walking with God for many years.

Sophron also describes an elder (see note Titus 1:9) as who is self-disciplined in all of his freedoms, self-restrained in all of his passions and desires. The last part of sophron (phren) means “brakes” in modern Greece and so the word conveys the idea that this man knows how to stop, when to quit and when to say “no”. A lot of people know when to start but not when to stop!

As Henry says this man

“governs well his passions and affections, so as not to be hurried away by them to any thing that is evil or indecent.”

Sophron taken back to its root means a “saved mindset” coming right out of a person’s salvation, so that his thinking has been flipped over from the “AM” band of the World to the “FM” band of the Spirit and he now has the ability to think the way God wants him to think and can act the way God wants him to act. He controls his physical passions, rejects worldly standards and resists worldly attractions because like Paul, by God’s grace he has learned to

“think so as to have sound judgment” (see note Romans 12:3)

He has come to learn that to be “in control” he has to be “under control” of the Holy Spirit (cf Gal 5:23, see note Ephesians 5:18).

SOUND : hugiainontas: (see note Titus 1:13)

“robust in their faith” (Weymouth)

Sound (5198) (hugiaino) (Click word study on hugiaino) as discussed in the two prior uses (see note Titus 1:9, Titus 1:13) means uncorrupt, healthy and wholesome and so is that which protects and preserves life. Though they may be unhealthy in body and decrepit because of age, they should still remain sound in mind.

IN FAITH: te pistei:

“to be well-grounded in faith” (GWT)

“to be robust in their faith” (Weymouth)

Faith (4102) (pistis) (Click word study on pistis) has the definite article, here, not “faith” as exercised, but the Faith,” (click discussion of “the faith”) the body of Christian doctrine. Older men have learned that the doctrine of God can be trusted in every way. They do not question His wisdom or power or love, and they do not lose trust in His goodness and grace or lose confidence in His divine plan and divine wisdom. They do not doubt the truth or sufficiency of His Word or waver in their divinely assured hope that His sovereign plan will be fulfilled. Listen to the words of Joshua who had grown old and sound in “the faith”:

“Now behold, today I am going the way of all the earth, and you know in all your hearts and in all your souls that not one word of all the good words which the LORD your God spoke concerning you has failed; all have been fulfilled for you, not one of them has failed.” (Josh 23:14)

Henry adds that sound in the faith means he is

“sincere and steadfast, constantly adhering to the truth of the gospel, not fond of novelties, nor ready to run into corrupt opinions or parties, nor to be taken with Jewish fables or traditions, or the dotages of their rabbis. Those who are full of years should be full of grace and goodness, the inner man renewing more and more as the outer decays.”

Faith” (pistis) is derived from peitho which means to be so persuaded by what we say we believe that we bow and act accordingly. So FAITH has an ACTION associated with it and is not just something you tell people you have but is something you show people you possess by the way you live. If this man is “healthy in the faith” it means he is always found trusting God, always willing to obey. Does your life back up what you say?

IN LOVE: te agape: (see notes 1Corinthians 13:4; 13:5 ; 13:6 ; 13:7)

Love (26) (agape) ( word study on agape) is unconditional, sacrificial love and a love that God is (1Jn 4:8,16), that God shows (Jn 3:16, 1Jn 4:9) and that God is so as noted above it is not surprising that Greek literature throws little light on its distinctive NT meaning. Agape in the Greek classics spoke of a love called out of one’s heart by the preciousness of the object loved. Agape may involve emotion, but it must always involve action. Agape is unrestricted, unrestrained, and unconditional.

The definite article (“te“), referring to the love produced in the heart of the yielded saint by the Holy Spirit. Agape love is a choice and not based on whether one feels like showing it or not! He has learned to love when his love is not deserved and to continue loving when it is rejected, even when he suffers because of it. He lovingly forgives and lovingly serves.

Barnes adds that this older man

“should have overcome, at his time of life, all the fiery, impetuous, envious, wrathful passions of his early years, and his mind should be subdued into sweet benevolence to all mankind.”

IN PERSEVERANCE: te hupomone:

Perseverance (5281) (hupomone from hupo = under + meno = abide) (Click word study of hupomone) which literally means “remaining under” trials and afflictions in a way that honors God. The root idea of hupomone is that of remaining under some discipline, subjecting one’s self to something which demands the acquiescence of the will to something against which one naturally would rebel. It portrays a picture of steadfastly and unflinchingly bearing up under a heavy load and describes that quality of character which does not allow one to surrender to circumstances or succumb under trial. The picture is that of steadfastness, constancy and endurance.

Hupomone is patience in the sense of meekness. Hupomone is the ability to endure when circumstances are difficult – not a passive sitting down and bearing things but a triumphant facing of them so that even out of evil there can come good, a bearing up in a way that honors and glorifies our heavenly Father.

The difficulties in our lives,
The obstacles we face,
Give God the opportunity
To show His power and grace.

Trench has defined hupomone as

“that temper of spirit in which we accept God’s dealings with us as good, and therefore without disputing or resisting.”

Older men are to exhibit the ability to endure hardship, to accept disappointment and failure, to be satisfied despite thwarted personal desires and plans. The older man is one who has learned to graciously live with such difficulties as physical weakness, loneliness, and being misunderstood and unappreciated. He does not lose heart when things do not turn out the way he had hoped and expected, but has the perfect confidence

“that God causes all things to work together for good to those who love God, to those who are called according to His purpose” (see note Romans 8:28).

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BIBLE STUDY ON DEALING WITH ERROR: Romans 16:17-18 (Avoiding those teaching DIVISION)

Posted by Gabriel (G²) on February 17, 2008


Romans 16:17-18 

 17I urge you, brothers, to watch out for those who cause divisions and put obstacles in your way that are contrary to the teaching you have learned. Keep away from them. 18For such people are not serving our Lord Christ, but their own appetites. By smooth talk and flattery they deceive the minds of naive people.




Romans 16:17 Now I urge you, brethren, keep your eye on those who cause dissensions and hindrances contrary to the teaching which you learned, and turn away from them  (NASB: Lockman)

Greek: Parakalo (1SPAI) de humas, adelphoi, skopein (PAN) tous tas dichostasias kai ta skandala para ten didachen en humeis emathete (2PAAI) poiountas, (PAPMPA) kai ekklinete (2PPAM) ap’ auton
Amplified: I appeal to you, brethren, to be on your guard concerning those who create dissensions and difficulties and cause divisions, in opposition to the doctrine (the teaching) which you have been taught. [I warn you to turn aside from them, to] avoid them. (Amplified Bible – Lockman)
BBE: Now, it is my desire, brothers, that you will take note of those who are causing division and trouble among you, quite against the teaching which was given to you: and keep away from them.
CEV: My friends, I beg you to watch out for anyone who causes trouble and divides the church by refusing to do what all of you were taught. Stay away from them! (
GWT: Brothers and sisters, I urge you to watch out for those people who create divisions and who make others fall away {from the Christian faith} by teaching doctrine that is not the same as you have learned. Stay away from them. (
KJV: Now I beseech you, brethren, mark them which cause divisions and offences contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned; and avoid them.
: Now I urge you, brothers and sisters, to watch out for those who create dissensions and obstacles contrary to the teaching that you learned. Avoid them!
 (NET Bible)
Phillips: And now I implore you, my brother, to keep a watchful eye on those who cause trouble and make difficulties among you, in plain opposition to the teaching you have been given, and steer clear of them. (
Phillips: Touchstone)
TLB: And now there is one more thing to say before I end this letter. Stay away from those who cause divisions and are upsetting people’s faith, teaching things about Christ that are contrary to what you have been taught.<